The Present Perfect Indicative(El presente perfecto de indicativo
The past participle used as a verb The present perfect in English and Spanish is considered a compound tense because its forms require two verbs. In English, the present perfect is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb to have + past participle. the present perfect is In Spanish, formed with the present tense of the verb haber + past participle. to have Past participle haber Past participleI have yo heyou have tú hashe, she has, you have taken él, ella, Ud. ha tomadowe have eaten nosotros/as hemos comido lived vividoyou (pl.) have vosotros/as habéisthey, you (pl.) have ellos/as, Uds. han
The past participle used as a verbIn general, the present perfect is used to refer to a past action that is perceived ashaving some bearing on the present. ¿Ya has usado la impresora? Have you already used the printer? Estoy buscando el cajero automático. ¿Lo has visto? I’m looking for the automatic teller. Have you seen it?
The past participle used as a verbThe auxiliary verb haber agrees with the subject of the sentence. The pastparticiple, however, is invariable when used in the perfect tense. It always ends in o. Mi jefe me ha dado un teléfono celular muy bueno. My boss has given me a very good cell phone. Marisa ha preparado la hoja electrónica. Marisa has prepared the spreadsheet.
The past participle used as a verbThe auxiliary verb haber and the past participle cannot be separated by another word.Object pronouns and negative words are always placed before haber. No la he preparado. I haven’t prepared it. ¿La has abierto? Have you opened it?
The past participle used as a verbIt is important to remember that the present perfect in English is oftencontracted, particularly in everyday speech. Such contractions do not exist inSpanish. Has leído el informe, ¿verdad? You’ve read the report, right? Sí, lo he leído varias veces. Yes, I’ve read it several times.
The past participle used as a verbThe verb haber is not interchangeable with tener. Haber means to have only when usedas an auxiliary verb with the past participle. Tener means to have or to own in the sense ofpossession. Julia tiene muchos amigos en esa empresa. Julia has many friends in that company. ¿Has tenido experiencia en hacer diseños? Have you had experience in doing designs?
To have just . . .The present tense of the verb acabar, to finish, isused with de + infinitive in order to describe eventsthat have just happened. Acabamos de ver la videoconferencia. We have just seen the videoconference. Acaban de borrar el archivo. They have just erased the file.
The past participle used as an adjectiveIn both English and Spanish, the past participle may be used as an adjective to modifya noun. The Spanish past participle used as an adjective agrees in number and genderwith the noun it modifies. Vimos las conferencias grabadas por nuestro supervisor. We saw the conferences recorded by our supervisor. Hay muchos programas escritos en Visual Basic. There are many programs written in Visual Basic.
The past participle used as an adjectiveThe verb estar may be used with the past participle to describe a state or conditionresulting from a previous action. When used with estar, the past participle is anadjective and agrees in number and gender with the noun it modifies. El libro está cerrado. La puerta está cerrada. Los escritorios están vendidos. Las computadoras están vendidas.