Bacteria are tiny, one-celled microorganisms found everywhere in the environment. Bacteria are sometimes called microbes. Some microbes are safe and can be eaten in the form of food, like cheese and yogurt, but others are harmful and can cause food-borne illness. Food-borne illness is caused by eating food contaminated by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Cross-contamination occurs when harmful bacteria from one food source is transferred to another.
Microorganisms like a warm temperature to grow. Bacteria rapidly multiply between 40 to 140° F. This is known as the DANGER ZONE. Freezing and refrigerating will stop or slow growth, but it will not kill bacteria. Warmer temperatures than 140° stop the growth of most microorganisms.
Cooking your foods to the proper internal temperature can greatly reduce your risk of getting sick from the foods you eat. Foods are properly cooked when they’re heated for a long enough time and at a high enough temperature to kill harmful bacteria. When reheating leftovers, bring to an internal temperature of 165° F and always boil sauces, soups, and gravies.
Safely separate raw meat and seafood from other foods in your shopping cart and your refrigerator. If available in the meat department of the grocery store, put raw meat in plastic bags to prevent cross-contamination in your cart. Always wash your hands, cutting boards, dishes, and utensils after they come in contact with raw meat, poultry, eggs, and unwashed produce. Always place cooked food on a clean plate. Place raw foods in a sealed container or plastic bags to prevent meat juices from dripping on other food. Wipe up promptly meat juice spills from all surfaces.
Eating contaminated foods carry unwanted microorganisms into the body. Some of the microorganisms overcome the body’s natural defenses and cause a food-borne illness. General symptoms of a food-borne illness include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. If you think you or someone you know has contracted a food-borne illness, contact your health care provider.
Escherichia coli (ess-chur-EE-kee-UH KO-LI) is commonly known as “E. coli.” Found most often in contaminated produce and undercooked ground beef, a person only needs to consume only a small amount of this type of bacteria to become ill. Cooking foods properly and preventing cross-contamination can help prevent illness.
Salmonella (SAL-ma-NEL-uh) is a bacteria commonly associated with poultry, eggs, dairy products, and beef or other products that come in contact with these animals or their waste. Illness can occur with a small amount of this bacteria, so it is important to cook foods to their proper temperatures and to make an effort to prevent cross-contamination.
Staphylococcus aureus (STAF-uh-lo-KOK-us OR-ee-us) is spread through unwashed hands. Contaminated foods produce toxins that cause the illness when eaten. These foods include deli meats, tuna, chicken or macaroni salads, or cream-filled pastries. Cooking cannot destroy these toxins. Practicing good hygiene can prevent the transfer of bacteria to food and proper storage can minimize the growth of bacteria in food.
Food Safety Terms:
Tiny, one-celled microorganisms
Illness caused by eating
Transfer of harmful bacteria
from one source to another
TEMPERATURE DANGER ZONE:
Temperature range in which
bacteria grow the fastest,
between 41- 135 F !!
and refrigerating can stop or
slow growth, but CANNOT kill
Guidelines for working within the
TDZ… (Temperature Danger Zone)
DON’T WAIT! REFRIGERATE!
Refrigerate prepared foods within 2 hours,
and always store foods properly!
Use a cooler for transporting perishable foods !
Set appliances to correct internal temperatures:
Refrigerator: 40°F or lower
0°F or lower
Foods MUST be cooked to the correct
internal temperature for safety!
Red Meat Cuts
1. Separating Foods:
a. in the cart at the grocery store
b. while storing it in your
a. your hands
b. produce before
How Does Food-Borne Illness Occur?
Contaminated foods or cells transport
micro-organisms and bacteria to the body!!
Common symptoms of food-borne illness:
- Abdominal cramps
SAFELY DEFROSTING FOOD :
1. In a refrigerator at or below 41’F:(SAFEST WAY!)
2. Submerged in a sink of clean, running water:
(*use cold water)
3. In a microwave oven:
(*Only if food will be cooked immediately.)
4. As part of the cooking process:
(*This method typically is used for products such as
frozen patties, nuggets, pizza, lasagna, chili, soup,
Home-canned foods with low acid
asparagus, green beans,
beets and corn;
Canned cheese sauce, low acid tomatoes,
carrot juice, baked potatoes in foil.
can carry the botulinium
bacteria fatal to children under 12 months!
Muscle paralysis, double and blurred vision,
drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing,
dry mouth, weakness and lethargy. If untreated, may
progress to respiratory failure!
generally begin 18 -36 hours after contamination,
Contaminate Source :
Contaminated water or food, or through contact
with infected animals, infected people or feces.
Unpasteurized (raw) milk or juices like apple cider,
soft cheeses made from raw milk.
Severe stomach cramps, bloody diarrhea, vomiting.
Symptoms appear between1-10 days after
pathogen exposure. Most get better within 5–7 days.
Some infections are very mild, but others are severe or even
life-threatening….children and the elderly can develop
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) a disease that destroys
red blood cells; can cause acute-kidney failure.
Most commonly spread by eating or drinking
something that has been contaminated
with the stool of a contaminated person (utensils)
Yellow skin or eyes (jaundice)
Stomach ache, loss of appetite, nausea
*Raw or undercooked eggs,
poultry, or meat .
*FOODS WITH RAW EGGS: Hollandaise sauce, Caesar
and other homemade salad dressings, tiramisu, homemade ice
cream, homemade mayonnaise, cookie dough, and frostings.
*Unpasteurized milk or other dairy products.
Severe diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 12 - 72 hours
after contamination. The illness usually lasts 4 - 7 days - most
people recover without treatment.
When Salmonella spreads from the intestines to the blood
stream, the infection can cause death unless treated promptly
Contaminate Source :
Most commonly caused by eating contaminated
foods through contact with food workers who
carry the bacteria; unsanitary practices!
Contaminated milk and cheese, sliced deli meats,
puddings, some pastries and prepared sandwiches.
Nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, and diarrhea.
Symptoms usually develop within one to six hours
after eating contaminated food; lasts from 1-3 days.
TEMPERATURE DANGER ZONE!
41 F – 135 F
*Bacteria grows best with
FOOD, ACID, TEMPERATURE
TIME, OXYGEN , MOISTURE,
When is comes to food