Elements of design
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  • 1. The Elements of GOOD Design
  • 2. Principles and Elements • Elements are “parts” of the design • Principles are the “rules” for using the parts – We will be learning how to identify the elements and then apply the rules (principles) to create GOOD design • Overall Goal => Harmony
  • 3. Elements Principles Space Proportion Line Scale Form/Shape Balance Texture Rhythm Pattern Emphasis Color Harmony
  • 4. Space
  • 5. What is it? • 3 dimensional area with which the designer works • Consider size of space and arrangement within the space
  • 6. How do spaces make you feel? Design Feeling Open Empty High Ceilings or too little furniture Too much furniture Well designed small spaces
  • 7. If space is limited • Objects may need to be smaller and fewer in number • To make appear larger – leave open space, use mirrors, choose furniture that has dual purpose
  • 8. If there is too much space • Make space appear smaller by: • Divide space –How? • Dividers, rugs furnishings • Change shape
  • 9. Positive and Negative Space • Negative Space – Empty space – EXAMPLE: the area under the desk • Positive Space – Filled space – EXAMPLE: the desk • All rooms should have a balance of both positive and negative space.
  • 10. Connection of two points Used to separate or unify a space Conveys a sense of movement for the eye
  • 11.  Horizontal – follows horizon  Diagonal – angled  Vertical – up and down  Curved
  • 12. Vertical Lines  Formality  Increased height  Strength and stability
  • 13.  What types of lines are in this picture?  What feeling does it give you?  Straight Horizontal lines create a restful and informal feeling
  • 14.  Action  Excitement  Movement  Energy
  • 15.  delicacy, comfort, graceful, feminine
  • 16.  Sharp angled and competing lines
  • 17. Structural vs. Decorative ◦ Structural  The design is an integral part of the structure itself.  The structure and design cannot be separated. ◦ Decorative  Involves the application of color, line, texture, or pattern to an object.
  • 18. Form and Shape Is this chair shape or form?
  • 19. Shape Shape is 2 dimensional: length and width (picture of chair) The outline of an object Basic shapes---circles, square, triangles, etc. Everything has a shape— telephones, cows, cars, etc.
  • 20. Form Form is 3 dimensional: length, width, and height (actual chair)  Basic forms--cones, cylinders, spheres, cubes, etc.
  • 21. Form or Shape  Circle  Square  Cube  Sphere  Cylinder  Oval  Picture of a cow  Your pet
  • 22. Use in design  Form has to do with the actual weight or the (visual) apparent weight  Large heavy objects signify stability but a group of smaller items can have same effect  Lighter weight appears whimsical, airy  Color and texture change visual weight
  • 23. Ask yourself Does the form of the object or space reflect its intended use and fulfill its intended function? Does it blend with other forms in the room?
  • 24. Team Shape  Put your name on your paper.  Each team member choose a different color colored pencil.  Each team member choose a shape (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, start, heart, etc…).  Draw your chosen shape anywhere on this page.  When the teacher says “PASS”, pass your paper to the person sitting next to you in the clockwise direction.  Draw your shape on the paper that you have. Continue passing and drawing until the teacher tells you to stop.
  • 25. Texture What are some words that describe texture?
  • 26. Coloring Activity • You need a coloring sheet and a crayon • Take the coloring page and your crayon to different surfaces around the room • Rub your crayon over a section of the picture and then choose a new surface and fill in a new part of the picture • Use at least 10 different surfaces and label each surface
  • 27. Texture adds variety and interest • Light affects the appearance of texture • Shiny textures reflect more light and appear brighter (stainless steel refrigerator) • Rough textures absorb light thus they appear darker
  • 28. Categories of Texture •Visual – the appearance of a surface •Tactile – the feel of a surface
  • 29. Formal/Informal • Shiny, smooth textures are characteristic of formal interiors. • Can you picture a baby grand piano with a rough texture? • Rough, heavily textured walls are generally informal.
  • 30. Size • Heavily textured walls will make a room appear smaller. • Walls with little to no texture will make a room appear larger.
  • 31. Textures affect us • Everything we touch evokes a physical response (hard, soft, rough smooth, etc…) • affects sound qualities • affects care and upkeep of an object • source of beauty and character
  • 32. Arrangement of motifs to create a unified design Simplest way to add interest to a surface Too much pattern can make a room busy and uncomfortable Without pattern, room may be bare or lacking in character
  • 33. If successful – feel comfortable If incompatible – uneasy feeling To achieve correctness in combining patterns:  Evaluate placement of emphasis  Know character of pattern  Identify color scheme of pattern  Use a variety of sizes of patterns