Principles and Elements
• Elements are “parts” of the design
• Principles are the “rules” for using the parts
– We will be learning how to identify the elements
and then apply the rules (principles) to create
• Overall Goal => Harmony
What is it?
• 3 dimensional area with which the designer
• Consider size of space and arrangement
within the space
How do spaces make you feel?
High Ceilings or too little
Too much furniture
Well designed small spaces
If space is limited
• Objects may need to be smaller and
fewer in number
• To make appear larger – leave
open space, use mirrors, choose
furniture that has dual purpose
If there is too much space
• Make space appear smaller by:
• Divide space
• Dividers, rugs furnishings
• Change shape
Positive and Negative Space
• Negative Space
– Empty space
– EXAMPLE: the area under the desk
• Positive Space
– Filled space
– EXAMPLE: the desk
• All rooms should have a balance of both
positive and negative space.
Connection of two points
Used to separate or unify
Conveys a sense of
movement for the eye
Horizontal – follows horizon
Diagonal – angled
Vertical – up and down
Structural vs. Decorative
The design is an integral part of the
The structure and design cannot be
Involves the application of color, line,
texture, or pattern to an object.
Shape is 2 dimensional: length
and width (picture of chair)
The outline of an object
Basic shapes---circles, square,
Everything has a shape—
telephones, cows, cars, etc.
Form is 3 dimensional: length,
width, and height (actual chair)
Basic forms--cones, cylinders,
spheres, cubes, etc.
Form or Shape
Picture of a cow
Use in design
Form has to do with the actual weight or
the (visual) apparent weight
Large heavy objects signify stability but a
group of smaller items can have same
Lighter weight appears whimsical, airy
Color and texture change visual weight
Does the form of the
object or space reflect its
intended use and fulfill its
Does it blend with other
forms in the room?
Put your name on your paper.
Each team member choose a different color
Each team member choose a shape (circle, square,
rectangle, triangle, start, heart, etc…).
Draw your chosen shape anywhere on this page.
When the teacher says “PASS”, pass your paper
to the person sitting next to you in the clockwise
Draw your shape on the paper that you have.
Continue passing and drawing until the teacher
tells you to stop.
What are some words that describe texture?
• You need a coloring sheet and a crayon
• Take the coloring page and your crayon to
different surfaces around the room
• Rub your crayon over a section of the
picture and then choose a new surface and
fill in a new part of the picture
• Use at least 10 different surfaces and label
Texture adds variety and interest
• Light affects the appearance of
• Shiny textures reflect more light
and appear brighter (stainless
• Rough textures absorb light thus
they appear darker
Categories of Texture
•Visual – the appearance
of a surface
•Tactile – the feel of a
• Shiny, smooth textures are
characteristic of formal
• Can you picture a baby grand
piano with a rough texture?
• Rough, heavily textured walls
are generally informal.
• Heavily textured walls will
make a room appear smaller.
• Walls with little to no texture
will make a room appear larger.
Textures affect us
• Everything we touch evokes a
physical response (hard, soft,
rough smooth, etc…)
• affects sound qualities
• affects care and upkeep of an
• source of beauty and character
Arrangement of motifs to create
a unified design
Simplest way to add interest to
Too much pattern can make a
room busy and uncomfortable
Without pattern, room may be
bare or lacking in character
If successful – feel comfortable
If incompatible – uneasy feeling
To achieve correctness in
Evaluate placement of emphasis
Know character of pattern
Identify color scheme of pattern
Use a variety of sizes of patterns