Elements of design


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Elements of design

  1. 1. The Elements of GOOD Design
  2. 2. Principles and Elements • Elements are “parts” of the design • Principles are the “rules” for using the parts – We will be learning how to identify the elements and then apply the rules (principles) to create GOOD design • Overall Goal => Harmony
  3. 3. Elements Principles Space Proportion Line Scale Form/Shape Balance Texture Rhythm Pattern Emphasis Color Harmony
  4. 4. Space
  5. 5. What is it? • 3 dimensional area with which the designer works • Consider size of space and arrangement within the space
  6. 6. How do spaces make you feel? Design Feeling Open Empty High Ceilings or too little furniture Too much furniture Well designed small spaces
  7. 7. If space is limited • Objects may need to be smaller and fewer in number • To make appear larger – leave open space, use mirrors, choose furniture that has dual purpose
  8. 8. If there is too much space • Make space appear smaller by: • Divide space –How? • Dividers, rugs furnishings • Change shape
  9. 9. Positive and Negative Space • Negative Space – Empty space – EXAMPLE: the area under the desk • Positive Space – Filled space – EXAMPLE: the desk • All rooms should have a balance of both positive and negative space.
  10. 10. Connection of two points Used to separate or unify a space Conveys a sense of movement for the eye
  11. 11.  Horizontal – follows horizon  Diagonal – angled  Vertical – up and down  Curved
  12. 12. Vertical Lines  Formality  Increased height  Strength and stability
  13. 13.  What types of lines are in this picture?  What feeling does it give you?  Straight Horizontal lines create a restful and informal feeling
  14. 14.  Action  Excitement  Movement  Energy
  15. 15.  delicacy, comfort, graceful, feminine
  16. 16.  Sharp angled and competing lines
  17. 17. Structural vs. Decorative ◦ Structural  The design is an integral part of the structure itself.  The structure and design cannot be separated. ◦ Decorative  Involves the application of color, line, texture, or pattern to an object.
  18. 18. Form and Shape Is this chair shape or form?
  19. 19. Shape Shape is 2 dimensional: length and width (picture of chair) The outline of an object Basic shapes---circles, square, triangles, etc. Everything has a shape— telephones, cows, cars, etc.
  20. 20. Form Form is 3 dimensional: length, width, and height (actual chair)  Basic forms--cones, cylinders, spheres, cubes, etc.
  21. 21. Form or Shape  Circle  Square  Cube  Sphere  Cylinder  Oval  Picture of a cow  Your pet
  22. 22. Use in design  Form has to do with the actual weight or the (visual) apparent weight  Large heavy objects signify stability but a group of smaller items can have same effect  Lighter weight appears whimsical, airy  Color and texture change visual weight
  23. 23. Ask yourself Does the form of the object or space reflect its intended use and fulfill its intended function? Does it blend with other forms in the room?
  24. 24. Team Shape  Put your name on your paper.  Each team member choose a different color colored pencil.  Each team member choose a shape (circle, square, rectangle, triangle, start, heart, etc…).  Draw your chosen shape anywhere on this page.  When the teacher says “PASS”, pass your paper to the person sitting next to you in the clockwise direction.  Draw your shape on the paper that you have. Continue passing and drawing until the teacher tells you to stop.
  25. 25. Texture What are some words that describe texture?
  26. 26. Coloring Activity • You need a coloring sheet and a crayon • Take the coloring page and your crayon to different surfaces around the room • Rub your crayon over a section of the picture and then choose a new surface and fill in a new part of the picture • Use at least 10 different surfaces and label each surface
  27. 27. Texture adds variety and interest • Light affects the appearance of texture • Shiny textures reflect more light and appear brighter (stainless steel refrigerator) • Rough textures absorb light thus they appear darker
  28. 28. Categories of Texture •Visual – the appearance of a surface •Tactile – the feel of a surface
  29. 29. Formal/Informal • Shiny, smooth textures are characteristic of formal interiors. • Can you picture a baby grand piano with a rough texture? • Rough, heavily textured walls are generally informal.
  30. 30. Size • Heavily textured walls will make a room appear smaller. • Walls with little to no texture will make a room appear larger.
  31. 31. Textures affect us • Everything we touch evokes a physical response (hard, soft, rough smooth, etc…) • affects sound qualities • affects care and upkeep of an object • source of beauty and character
  32. 32. Arrangement of motifs to create a unified design Simplest way to add interest to a surface Too much pattern can make a room busy and uncomfortable Without pattern, room may be bare or lacking in character
  33. 33. If successful – feel comfortable If incompatible – uneasy feeling To achieve correctness in combining patterns:  Evaluate placement of emphasis  Know character of pattern  Identify color scheme of pattern  Use a variety of sizes of patterns