11H LECTURE
PUTTING SHAKESPEARE’S
OTHELLO
“ON THE COUCH”
INTRODUCTION TO SIGMUND
FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTIC
THEORY
SIGMUND FREUD
• 1856-1939
• Lived in Vienna, Austria
• Freud was originally trained as a
physician.
• Freudian psychology ...
PSYCHOANALYSIS
• EMPHASIZES THE IMPORTANCE OF
UNCONSCIOUS MOTIVES & INTERNAL
CONFLICTS IN DETERMINING HUMAN
BEHAVIOR.
• EM...
PSYCHOANALYSIS
• THE PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH
CLAIMS THAT PEOPLE ARE BORN
WITH CERTAIN BIOLOGICAL DRIVES
SUCH AS…
AGGRESSIO...
PSYCHOANALYSIS
• THESE DRIVES COME INTO CONFLICT
WITH
LAWS,
SOCIAL NORMS,
AND MORAL CODES.
FREUD’S UNDERSTANDING OF
THE MIND
• FREUD BELIEVED THAT THE MIND
HAS THREE BASIC PSYCHOLOGICAL
STRUCTURES.
THE ID
• THE ID REPRESENTS BASIC DRIVES SUCH
AS HUNGER.
• THE ID DEMANDS INSTANT GRATIFICATION.
• THE ID PAYS NO ATTENTION...
THE EGO
• THE EGO DEVELOPS BECAUSE OF A
CHILD’S DEMANDS FOR INSTANT
GRATIFICATION.
• THE EGO STANDS FOR REASON AND GOOD
SE...
THE SUPEREGO
• THE SUPEREGO DEVELOPS THROUGHOUT
EARLY CHILDHOOD.
• IT FUNCTIONS ACCORDING TO THE MORAL
PRINCIPLE.
• BY INC...
FREUDIAN DEFENSE
MECHANISMS
ACCORDING TO FREUD, DEFENSE
MECHANISMS ARE METHODS THE
EGO USES TO AVOID RECOGNIZING
IDEAS, EM...
REPRESSION
REPRESSION REMOVES AWARENESS
OF ANXIETY CAUSING INFLUENCES
BY PUSHING THEM INTO THE
UNCONSCIOUS.
RATIONALIZATION
Rationalization involves the use of selfdeception to justify unacceptable
behaviors and ideas.
DENIAL
In the mechanism of denial, a person
refuses to accept the reality of anything
that is bad or upsetting.
FREUDIAN PSYCHOLOGY AND
THE STUDY OF LITERATURE
• USING FREUDIAN PSYCHOLOGY, THE
CRITIC CAN INTELLIGENTLY
SPECULATE ABOUT ...
FREUDIAN PSYCHOLOGY AND
THE STUDY OF LITERATURE
• USING A PSYCHOANALYTIC LENS, A
CRITIC CAN EXAMINE HOW HUMAN
AGGRESSION, ...
FREUDIAN PSYCHOLOGY AND
THE STUDY OF LITERATURE
• USING A PSYCHOANALYTIC LENS, A
READER CAN GAIN A DEEPER
UNDERSTANDING OF...
FREUDIAN PSYCHOLOGY, THE STUDY OF LITERATURE,
AND
OTHELLO
USING FREUDIAN PSYCHOLOGY, HOW MIGHT WE EXAMINE THE
CHARACTERS I...
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11 h lecture freud & psych0analytic theory

  1. 1. 11H LECTURE PUTTING SHAKESPEARE’S OTHELLO “ON THE COUCH” INTRODUCTION TO SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
  2. 2. SIGMUND FREUD • 1856-1939 • Lived in Vienna, Austria • Freud was originally trained as a physician. • Freudian psychology is regarded as the beginning of modern psychology. • Freud coined the term PSYCHOANALYSIS.
  3. 3. PSYCHOANALYSIS • EMPHASIZES THE IMPORTANCE OF UNCONSCIOUS MOTIVES & INTERNAL CONFLICTS IN DETERMINING HUMAN BEHAVIOR. • EMPHASIZES THAT ALL PEOPLE UNDERGO STRUGGLES.
  4. 4. PSYCHOANALYSIS • THE PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH CLAIMS THAT PEOPLE ARE BORN WITH CERTAIN BIOLOGICAL DRIVES SUCH AS… AGGRESSION, PHYSICAL GRATIFICATION, AND THE NEED FOR SUPERIORITY.
  5. 5. PSYCHOANALYSIS • THESE DRIVES COME INTO CONFLICT WITH LAWS, SOCIAL NORMS, AND MORAL CODES.
  6. 6. FREUD’S UNDERSTANDING OF THE MIND • FREUD BELIEVED THAT THE MIND HAS THREE BASIC PSYCHOLOGICAL STRUCTURES.
  7. 7. THE ID • THE ID REPRESENTS BASIC DRIVES SUCH AS HUNGER. • THE ID DEMANDS INSTANT GRATIFICATION. • THE ID PAYS NO ATTENTION TO LAWS, CUSTOMS, OR THE NEED OF OTHERS. • THE ID IS PRESENT AT BIRTH. • THE ID IS DRIVEN BY THE PLEASURE PRINCIPLE—IMMEDIATE GRATIFICATION, PLEASURE, OR RELIEF.
  8. 8. THE EGO • THE EGO DEVELOPS BECAUSE OF A CHILD’S DEMANDS FOR INSTANT GRATIFICATION. • THE EGO STANDS FOR REASON AND GOOD SENSE. • IT IS GUIDED BY THE REALITY PRINCIPLE— THE UNDERSTANDING THAT IN THE REAL WORLD WE CANNOT ALWAYS GET WHAT WE WANT. • THE EGO SEEKS TO SATISFY THE ID IN WAYS THAT ARE CONSISTENT WITH REALITY.
  9. 9. THE SUPEREGO • THE SUPEREGO DEVELOPS THROUGHOUT EARLY CHILDHOOD. • IT FUNCTIONS ACCORDING TO THE MORAL PRINCIPLE. • BY INCORPORATING THE STANDARDS AND VALUES OF PARENTS AND MEMBERS OF SOCIETY, THE SUPEREGO PROVIDES US WITH OUR MORAL SENSE. • THE SUPEREGO ACTS AS THE CONSCIENCE.
  10. 10. FREUDIAN DEFENSE MECHANISMS ACCORDING TO FREUD, DEFENSE MECHANISMS ARE METHODS THE EGO USES TO AVOID RECOGNIZING IDEAS, EMOTIONS, OR CONFLICTS THAT CAUSE ANXIETY.
  11. 11. REPRESSION REPRESSION REMOVES AWARENESS OF ANXIETY CAUSING INFLUENCES BY PUSHING THEM INTO THE UNCONSCIOUS.
  12. 12. RATIONALIZATION Rationalization involves the use of selfdeception to justify unacceptable behaviors and ideas.
  13. 13. DENIAL In the mechanism of denial, a person refuses to accept the reality of anything that is bad or upsetting.
  14. 14. FREUDIAN PSYCHOLOGY AND THE STUDY OF LITERATURE • USING FREUDIAN PSYCHOLOGY, THE CRITIC CAN INTELLIGENTLY SPECULATE ABOUT THE AUTHOR, THE WORK ITSELF, AND THE CHARACTERS IN THE WORK IN QUESTION.
  15. 15. FREUDIAN PSYCHOLOGY AND THE STUDY OF LITERATURE • USING A PSYCHOANALYTIC LENS, A CRITIC CAN EXAMINE HOW HUMAN AGGRESSION, REPRESSION, AND ANXIETY MOTIVATE A CHARACTER TO ACT IN CERTAIN WAYS.
  16. 16. FREUDIAN PSYCHOLOGY AND THE STUDY OF LITERATURE • USING A PSYCHOANALYTIC LENS, A READER CAN GAIN A DEEPER UNDERSTANDING OF INNER CONFLICTS, UNIVERSAL STRUGGLES IN THE HUMAN CONDITION, AND WHAT DETERMINES HUMAN BEHAVIOR.
  17. 17. FREUDIAN PSYCHOLOGY, THE STUDY OF LITERATURE, AND OTHELLO USING FREUDIAN PSYCHOLOGY, HOW MIGHT WE EXAMINE THE CHARACTERS IN OTHELLO? • • • • • • What motivates Iago to be evil? What motivates Othello to believe in Iago? What motivates Othello to be cruel? What fears led Brabantio to have that dream? Why do the Venetians fear the Moor? What message about human psychology do we learn from reading Othello?

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