Section 1 b representation


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Section 1 b representation

  1. 1. Representation<br />“Identify is complicated Everyone thinks they’ve got one. Artists play with the idea in modern society. ” – David Gauntlett<br />
  2. 2. To reinforce basic representation theory<br />To understand how to evaluate our coursework against key theories<br />Objectives<br />
  3. 3. David Chandler- Representation refers to the construction in any medium of aspects of ‘reality’ such as people, places, objects, events, cultural identities and other abstract concepts<br />Representation always involves 'theconstruction of reality'<br />What is Representation?<br />
  4. 4. Systems of representation are themeans by which the concerns of ideologies are framed; such systems ‘position’ their subjects<br />Roland Barthes ‘Myth’ – mythic in the sense of having the appearance of being natural or commonsense<br />Things Appear Natural<br />
  5. 5. WHO or WHAT is being represented?<br />HOW is the representation created?<br />WHO has created the representation?<br />WHY has it been created in that way?<br />WHAT is the effect of the representation?<br />Questions…<br />
  6. 6. All texts, however 'realistic' they may seem to be, are constructed representations rather than simply transparent 'reflections', recordings, transcriptions or reproductions of a pre-existing reality<br />Representations which become familiar through constant re-use come to feel 'natural' and unmediated<br />Semiotics<br />
  7. 7. The representation is constructed with a set of ideas / values (intended meaning)<br />The context of the representation is part of the representation (form, genre expectations, media language)<br />The audience reacts to this representation and this depends on their own personal interpretational context i.e. age, gender, beliefs (negotiated meaning)<br />The Constructionist Approach<br />
  8. 8. Archetype – a familiar characters from hundreds of years of fairytales<br />Stereotype – generalisations used to appeal to particular audiences; easily recognisable<br />Generic type – familiar through particular genres<br />Character Typing<br />
  9. 9. Masculinity and Femininity are socially constructed<br />Think about the way women’s bodies in the media has become a common theme (hip hop videos, Page 3)<br />Laura Mulveyargues that the dominant point of view is masculine<br />Gender and Ideology (Feminism)<br />
  10. 10. John Berger:<br /> “Men act and women appear” <br /> “Men look at women. Women watch themselves being looked at”<br />Ways of Seeing<br />
  11. 11. “Striptease is based on contradiction. Woman is desexualised at the very moment when she is stripped naked.”<br />He is suggesting it is clothes that sexualise her more – plenty of evidence of this in pop videos. <br />Did you subvert these ideas in your texts by your representations or not?<br />Barthes View on Sexualisation<br />
  12. 12. Walter Lippmann – a shortcut or ordering process<br />In ideological terms, stereotyping is a means by which support is provided by one group’s differential against another<br />Stereotyping<br />
  13. 13. Tessa Perkins 1979: stereotyping is not a simple process otherwise they would not work culturally and over time<br />Martin Baker 1989: stereotypes are condemned for misrepresenting the ‘real’ world)<br />Other Theorists<br />
  14. 14. Details that if we are to be told that we are going to see a film about an alcoholic then we will know that it will be a tale either of sordid decline or of inspiring redemption<br />He suggests this is a particularly interesting potential use of stereotypes, in which the character is constructed, at the level of dress, performance, etc., as a stereotype but is deliberately given a narrative function that is not implicit in the stereotype, thus throwing into question the assumptions signalled by the stereotypical iconography<br />Richard Dyer 1977<br />
  15. 15. ‘Representations in media texts are often simplistic and reinforce dominant ideologies so that audiences can make sense of them’<br />Evaluate the ways you have used/challenged simplistic representations in one of the media products you have produces. <br />Practice<br />