Ch 10 The Muscular System

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  • Figure 10.1 a
  • Split this slide 10-8 and 10-9 figure 10.1a
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  • Ch 10 The Muscular System

    1. 1. Chapter 10 *Lecture Animation PowerPoint The Muscular System To run the animations you must be in Slideshow View. Use the buttons on the animation to play, pause, and turn audio/text on or off. Please Note: Once you have used any of the animation functions (such as Play or Pause), you must first click in the background before you can advance to the next slide. *See separate FlexArt PowerPoint slides for all figures and tables preinserted into PowerPoint without notes.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    2. 2. The Structural and Functional Organization of Muscles• About 600 human skeletal muscles• Constitute about half of our body weight• Three kinds of muscle tissue – Skeletal, cardiac, smooth• Specialized for one major purpose – Converting the chemical energy in ATP into the mechanical energy of motion• Myology—the study of the muscular system 10-2
    3. 3. The Functions of Muscles• Movement – Move from place to place, movement of body parts and body contents in breathing, circulation, feeding and digestion, defecation, urination, and childbirth – Role in communication: speech, writing, nonverbal communications• Stability – Maintain posture by preventing unwanted movements – Antigravity muscles: resist pull of gravity and prevent us from falling or slumping over – Stabilize joints 10-3
    4. 4. The Functions of Muscles• Control of openings and passageways – Sphincters: internal muscular rings that control the movement of food, bile, blood, and other materials within the body• Heat production by skeletal muscles – As much as 85% of our body heat• Glycemic control – Regulation of blood glucose concentrations within its normal range 10-4
    5. 5. Connective Tissues of a Muscle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Tendon Fascia Skeletal muscle Muscle fascicle Nerve Blood vessels Epimysium Perimysium Figure 10.1a Endomysium Muscle fiber Muscle fascicle Perimysium Muscle fiber (a) 10-5
    6. 6. Connective Tissues and Fascicles• Endomysium – Thin sleeve of loose connective tissue surrounding each muscle fiber – Allows room for capillaries and nerve fibers to reach each muscle fiber – Provides extracellular chemical environment for the muscle fiber and its associated nerve ending• Perimysium – Slightly thicker layer of connective tissue – Fascicles: bundles of muscle fibers wrapped in perimysium – Carry larger nerves and blood vessels, and stretch receptors 10-6
    7. 7. Connective Tissues and Fascicles• Epimysium – Fibrous sheath surrounding the entire muscle – Outer surface grades into the fascia – Inner surface sends projections between fascicles to form perimysium• Fascia – Sheet of connective tissue that separates neighboring muscles or muscle groups from each other and the subcutaneous tissue 10-7
    8. 8. Fascicles and Muscle Shapes Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Unipennate T riangular Bipennate Parallel MultipennateFusiform Tendon Circular Belly Pectoralis major Palmar interosseous Tendon Rectus femoris Rectus abdominis Deltoid Biceps brachii Orbicularis oculi Figure 10.2 • Strength of a muscle and the direction of its pull are determined partly by the orientation of its fascicles 10-8
    9. 9. Muscle Compartments Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Anterior Lateral Medial Tibia Fibula Posterior Interosseous membrane Artery, veins, and nerve Intermuscular septa Fasciae Key Subcutaneous Anterior compartment fat Lateral compartment Posterior compartment, deep layer Posterior compartment, Figure 10.3 superficial layer• A group of functionally related muscles enclosed and separated from others by connective tissue fascia• Contains nerves, blood vessels that supply the muscle group – Thoracic, abdominal walls, pelvic floor, limbs• Intermuscular septa separate one compartment from another 10-9
    10. 10. Muscle Attachments• Indirect attachment to bone – Tendons bridge the gap between muscle ends and bony attachment • Collagen fibers of the endo-, peri-, and epimysium continue into the tendon • From there into the periosteum and the matrix of bone • Very strong structural continuity from muscle to bone • Biceps brachii, Achilles tendon • Aponeurosis—tendon is a broad, flat sheet (palmar aponeurosis) • Retinaculum—connective tissue band that tendons from separate muscles pass under 10-10
    11. 11. Ex. Palmar Aponeurosis
    12. 12. Muscle Origins and Insertions Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Origin – Bony attachment at stationary end of muscle Origins Origins Humerus Scapula• Belly Bellies – Thicker, middle region of Extensors: Flexors: muscle between origin Triceps brachii Biceps brachii Long head Brachialis Lateral head and insertion• Insertion Insertion Radius – Bony attachment to Insertion Ulna mobile end of muscle Figure 10.4 10-12
    13. 13. Muscle Origin and Insertions• Also can be determined by proximal or distal or superior and inferior attachments, especially on limbs (nontraditional)• Some muscles insert not on bone but on the fascia or tendon of another muscle or on collagen fibers of the dermis – Distal tendon of the biceps brachii inserts on the fascia of the forearm – Facial muscles insert in the skin 10-13
    14. 14. Functional Groups of Muscles• Action—the effects produced by a muscle – To produce or prevent movement• Four categories depending on action – Prime mover (agonist) • Muscle that produces most of force during a joint action – Synergist: muscle that aids the prime mover • Stabilizes the nearby joint • Modifies the direction of movement 10-14
    15. 15. Functional Groups of MusclesCont. – Antagonist: opposes the prime mover • Relaxes to give prime mover control over an action • Preventing excessive movement and injury • Antagonistic pairs—muscles that act on opposite sides of a joint – Fixator: muscle that prevents movement of bone 10-15
    16. 16. Functional Groups of Muscles Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. • Prime mover—brachialisOrigins OriginsScapula Humerus • Synergist—biceps brachii Bellies Extensors: Flexors: • Antagonist—triceps brachii Triceps brachii Biceps brachii Long head Brachialis Lateral head • Fixator—muscle that holds scapula firmly in place InsertionInsertion Radius – Rhomboids Ulna Figure 10.4 10-16
    17. 17. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Muscles Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. • Intrinsic muscles— entirely contained Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Common flexor within a region, such Tendon sheath First dorsal interosseous as the hand Tendon of flexor tendon digitorum profundus Adductor pollicis Tendon of flexor – Both its origin and digitorum superficialis Tendon of flexor Lumbricals pollicis longus Flexor insertion there Opponens digiti minimi Flexor pollicis digitorum brevis Flexor digiti superficialis Abductor pollicis brevis Abductor digiti Flexor minimi Opponens pollicis pollicis longus • Extrinsic muscles— Flexor retinaculum T endons of: Tendons of: Abductor pollicis Flexor carpi ulnaris longus act on a designated Flexor carpi Flexor digitorum radialis superficialis Flexor pollicis region, but has its Palmaris longus longus Flexor digitorum (a) Palmar aspect, superficial superficialis tendons origin elsewhere Figure 10.31a Flexor digitorum – Fingers: extrinsic profundus tendons muscles in the forearm(b) Intermediate flexor Figure 10.28b 10-17
    18. 18. Muscle Innervation• Innervation of a muscle—refers to the identity of the nerve that stimulates it – Enables the diagnosis of nerve, spinal cord, and brainstem injuries from their effects on muscle function• Spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord – Emerge through intervertebral foramina – Immediately branch into a posterior and anterior ramus – Innervate muscles below the neck – Plexus: weblike network of spinal nerves adjacent to the vertebral column 10-18
    19. 19. Neuromuscular Junction High MagnificationSkeletal muscle fiber Axon of motor nerve Motor end plate
    20. 20. Muscle Innervation• Cranial nerves arise from the base of the brain – Emerge through skull foramina – Innervate the muscles of the head and neck – Numbered CN I to CN XII 10-20
    21. 21. Blood Supply• Muscular system receives about 1.24 L of blood per minute at rest (one-quarter of the blood pumped by the heart)• During heavy exercise total cardiac output rises and the muscular system’s share is more than three- quarters (11.6 L/min)• Capillaries branch extensively through the endomysium to reach every muscle fiber 10-21
    22. 22. The Muscular System Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Superficial Deep Deep Superficial Frontalis Orbicularis oculi Occipitalis Masseter Zygomaticus major Semispinalis capitis Orbicularis oris Sternocleidomastoid Sternocleidomastoid Splenius capitis Trapezius Platysma Trapezius Levator scapulae Pectoralis minor Supraspinatus Rhomboideus minor Deltoid Coracobrachialis Rhomboideus major Pectoralis major Infraspinatus Serratus anterior Deltoid (cut) Teres minor Brachialis Infraspinatus Teres major Biceps brachii Serratus anterior Rectus abdominis Triceps brachii Triceps brachii (cut) Supinator Serratus posterior inferior Latissimus dorsi Flexor digitorum Extensor carpi profundus External abdominal oblique Brachioradialis radialis longus Flexor pollicis longus Internal abdominal oblique and brevis Flexor carpi radialis External abdominal Transverse abdominal Erector spinae oblique External abdominal Internal abdominal Extensor digitorum oblique Flexor carpi ulnaris Gluteus medius oblique Tensor Pronator quadratus Extensor digitorum (cut) Extensor carpi ulnaris fasciae latae Gluteus minimus Gluteus maximus Lateral rotators Adductor Adductor longus magnus Sartorius Adductors Gracilis Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Iliotibial band Semitendinosus Vastus lateralis Vastus intermedius Semimembranosus Iliotibial band Vastus medialis Gracilis Biceps femoris Biceps femoris Gastrocnemius (cut) Soleus (cut) Fibularis longus Gastrocnemius Gastrocnemius Tibialis posterior Flexor digitorum longus Tibialis anterior Soleus Soleus Extensor hallucis longus Extensor digitorum Fibularis longus Extensor digitorum longus longus Calcaneal tendonFigure 10.5a (a) Anterior view Figure 10.5b (b) Posterior view 10-22
    23. 23. The Human Muscular SystemPlease view the photographs of the human muscular system inthe slides beyond this point. Look for muscles you haveidentified in the cat. Compare the anatomy of the human withthe anatomy of the cat. Think about how they compare. Howare they the same? How are they different? What is thereason for these differences?You will not be tested on the photographs.
    24. 24. Masseter origin insertion
    25. 25. Muscles of Chewing and Swallowing• Hyoid muscles—suprahyoid group• Aspects of chewing, swallowing, and vocalizing• Eight pairs of hyoid muscles associated with hyoid bone• Digastric—opens mouth widely• Geniohyoid—depresses mandible• Mylohyoid—elevates floor of mouth at beginning of swallowing• Stylohyoid—elevates hyoid Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Superficial Deep Digastric: Anterior belly Posterior belly Suprahyoid group Stylohyoid Mylohyoid Hyoid bone Common carotid artery Levator scapulae Internal jugular vein Thyrohyoid Infrahyoid Sternohyoid Infrahyoid Omohyoid: group Sternothyroid group Superior belly Inferior belly Sternocleidomastoid Clavicle Figure 10.11a (a) Anterior view 10-25
    26. 26. Suprahyoid Group - Digastric Origin Anterior Belly Origin Posterior Belly
    27. 27. Suprahyoid Group - Geniohyoid origin insertion
    28. 28. Suprahyoid Group - Mylohyoid origin insertion
    29. 29. Suprahyoid Group - Stylohyoid origin insertion
    30. 30. Muscles of Chewing and Swallowing• Hyoid muscles—infrahyoid group• Fix hyoid bone from below, allowing suprahyoid muscles to open mouth• Omohyoid—depresses hyoid after elevation• Sternohyoid—depresses hyoid after elevation• Thyrohyoid—depresses hyoid and elevates larynx• Sternothyroid—depresses larynx after elevation Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Stylohyoid Digastric (posterior belly) Hyoglossus Splenius capitis Mylohyoid Digastric Inferior pharyngeal constrictor (anterior belly) Sternocleidomastoid Hyoid bone Trapezius Thyrohyoid Levator scapulae Omohyoid (superior belly) Scalenes Sternothyroid Omohyoid (inferior belly) Figure 10.11b Sternohyoid (b) Lateral view 10-30
    31. 31. Infrahyoid Group - Omohyoid
    32. 32. Infrahyoid Group - Omohyoid origin insertion
    33. 33. Infrahyoid Group - Sternohyoid
    34. 34. Infrahyoid Group - Sternohyoid origin - clavicle insertion - hyoid
    35. 35. Infrahyoid Group -Thyrohyoid
    36. 36. Infrahyoid Group -Thyrohyoid insertion
    37. 37. Infrahyoid Group - Sternothyroid
    38. 38. Muscles of Chewing and Swallowing Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Styloid process Palatoglossus Mastoid process Styloglossus Posterior belly of digastric (cut) Superior pharyngeal constrictor (cut) Inferior longitudinal muscle of tongue Stylohyoid Middle pharyngeal constrictor Genioglossus Hyoglossus Mylohyoid (cut) Hyoid bone Geniohyoid Larynx Inferior pharyngeal constrictor EsophagusFigure 10.9 Trachea• Pharynx: three pairs pharyngeal constrictors – Encircle pharynx forming a muscular funnel – During swallowing, drive food into the esophagus 10-38
    39. 39. Muscles Acting on the Head Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• Neck flexors – Sternocleidomastoid – Scalenes Superior nuchal line Semispinalis capitis• Neck extensors Sternocleidomastoid – Trapezius Longissimus capitis Longissimus cervicis – Splenius capitis Trapezius – Semispinalis capitis Figure 10.12 10-39
    40. 40. Neck Flexor - Sternocleidomastoid
    41. 41. Neck Flexor - Sternocleidomastoid insertion origin
    42. 42. Neck Extensor - Trapezius
    43. 43. Neck Extensor - Trapezius
    44. 44. Trapezius origins insertions
    45. 45. Diaphragm
    46. 46. Diaphragm
    47. 47. External Intercostals
    48. 48. External Intercostalsorigins insertions
    49. 49. Internal Intercostals
    50. 50. Lateral Abdominal MusclesExternal abdominal Internal abdominal Transverse abdominis oblique oblique
    51. 51. External Abdominal Oblique inguinal ring
    52. 52. Internal Abdominal Oblique & Transversus Abdominis
    53. 53. Rectus Abdominis
    54. 54. Rectus Abdominis Tendinousintersections Linea alba insertions
    55. 55. Superficial Back Muscles – Trapezius
    56. 56. Superficial Back Muscles – Trapezius insertion origins
    57. 57. Superficial Back Muscles – Latissimus Dorsi
    58. 58. Superficial Back Muscles – Latissimus Dorsi insertion origins
    59. 59. Superficial Back Muscles – Levator Scapulae
    60. 60. Superficial Back Muscles – Levator Scapulae origin insertion
    61. 61. Superficial Back Muscles – Rhomboideous Major
    62. 62. Superficial Back Muscles – Rhomboideous Major origininsertion
    63. 63. Superficial Back Muscles – Rhomboideous Minor
    64. 64. Superficial Back Muscles – Rhomboideous Minor origin insertion
    65. 65. Intermediate Back MuscleSerratus Posterior Superior & Inferior
    66. 66. Deep Back Muscles –Iliocostalis of Erector Spinae
    67. 67. Deep Back Muscles –Longissimus of Erector Spinae origin insertion
    68. 68. Deep Back Muscles –Spinalis of Erector Spinae origin insertion
    69. 69. Deep Back Muscles –Semispinalis Thoracis
    70. 70. Deep Back Muscles – Semispinalis Capitis
    71. 71. Deep Back Muscles – Semispinalis Capitis origin insertion
    72. 72. Muscles Acting on the Shoulder and the Upper Limb
    73. 73. Muscles Acting on Scapula – Pectoralis Minor
    74. 74. Muscles Acting on Scapula – Pectoralis Minor originsinsertion
    75. 75. Muscles Acting on Scapula – Serratus Anterior
    76. 76. Muscles Acting on Scapula – Serratus Anteriorinsertion origins
    77. 77. Muscles Acting on Scapula – Trapezius
    78. 78. Muscles Acting on Scapula – Trapeziusinsertions origins
    79. 79. Muscles Acting on Scapula – Levator Scapulae
    80. 80. Levator Scapulae origin insertion
    81. 81. Muscles Acting on Scapula –Rhomboideus Major & Minor
    82. 82. Muscles acting on Scapula –Rhomboideus Major & Minor
    83. 83. Muscles Acting on Humerus – Pectoralis Major
    84. 84. Muscles Acting on Humerus – Pectoralis Major insertionorigins
    85. 85. Muscles Acting on Humerus – Latissimus Dorsi
    86. 86. Muscles Acting on Humerus – Latissimus Dorsiinsertion origins
    87. 87. Muscles Acting on Humerus – Deltoid
    88. 88. Muscles Acting on Humerus – Deltoidinsertion origins
    89. 89. Muscles Acting on Humerus – Teres Major
    90. 90. Muscles Acting on Humerus – Teres Major insertion origin
    91. 91. Muscles Acting on Humerus – Coracobrachialis origin insertion
    92. 92. Anterior View of Cadaver Chest Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.DeltoidPectoralis majorBiceps brachii: Long head Short headSerratus anteriorExternalabdominaloblique (a) Anterior view © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Rebecca Gray, photographer/Don Kincaid, dissections Figure 10.24a 10-92
    93. 93. Back Muscles of Cadaver Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Levator scapulaeRhomboideusminorRhomboideusmajorDeltoidInfraspinatusTeres minorMedial borderof scapulaTeres majorTriceps brachii:Lateral headLong headLatissimus dorsi(b) Posterior view © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Rebecca Gray, photographer/Don Kincaid, dissections Figure 10.24b 10-93
    94. 94. Muscles Acting on Humerus – Rotator Cuff - Supraspinatus origininsertion
    95. 95. Muscles Acting on Humerus – Rotator Cuff - Infraspinatus origininsertion
    96. 96. Muscles Acting on Humerus – Rotator Cuff –Teres Minorinsertion origin
    97. 97. Muscles Acting on Humerus –Rotator Cuff - Subscapularis insertion origin
    98. 98. Muscles Acting on ForearmBellies in Brachium - Biceps Brachii Long Head Principal Flexor Short Head
    99. 99. Muscles Acting on ForearmBellies in Brachium - Biceps Brachii origin origin long head short head insertion
    100. 100. Muscles Acting on Forearm Bellies in Brachium - Brachialis insertion origin
    101. 101. Muscles Acting on Forearm Bellies in Brachium – Triceps Brachii insertion origin long head origin medial head originlateral head
    102. 102. Muscles Acting on ForearmBellies in Antebrachium – Brachioradialis origin insertion
    103. 103. Muscles Acting on ForearmBellies in Antebrachium – Pronators Pronator teres Pronator quadratus
    104. 104. Pronator Teres originsinsertion
    105. 105. Pronator Quadratus origininsertion
    106. 106. Muscles Acting on Forearm Bellies in Antebrachium – Supinatororigin insertion
    107. 107. Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Anterior Compartment – Flexor Carpi Radialis insertion
    108. 108. Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Anterior Compartment – Flexor Carpi Ulnaris origin insertion posterior view
    109. 109. Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Anterior Compartment Flexor Digitorum Superficialis insertion
    110. 110. Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Anterior Compartment Palmaris Longus Palmaris longus tendon
    111. 111. Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Anterior Compartment Flexor Digitorum Profundus tendons origininsertions
    112. 112. Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Anterior Compartment Flexor Pollicus Longusinsertion origins
    113. 113. Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Posterior CompartmentExtensor Carpi Radialis Longus & Brevis
    114. 114. Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Posterior Compartment Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus insertion origin tendon
    115. 115. Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Posterior Compartment Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis insertion tendon
    116. 116. Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Posterior Compartment Extensor Carpi Ulnaris insertionorigin
    117. 117. Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Posterior Compartment Extensor Digitorum tendon insertion
    118. 118. Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Posterior Compartment Extensor Digiti Minimi tendon insertion
    119. 119. Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Posterior Compartment -deep Abductor Pollicus Longus origin insertion tendon
    120. 120. Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Posterior Compartment -deep Extensor Indicis tendon origin insertion
    121. 121. Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Posterior Compartment -deep Extensor Pollicis Longus origin insertion tendon
    122. 122. Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Posterior Compartment -deep Extensor Pollicis Brevis insertion origin tendon
    123. 123. Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Posterior Compartment Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus tendon origin insertion
    124. 124. Flexor & Extensor Retinaculum flexor extensor
    125. 125. Carpal Tunnel SyndromeCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Repetitive motions cause Tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis inflammation and Lumbrical pressure on median nerve Opponens digiti minimi Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Adductor Flexor digiti pollicis minimi brevis Tendon sheath First dorsal Flexor pollicis interosseous brevis Tendon of flexor Adductor Abductor digiti digitorum profundus pollicis minimi Tendon of flexor Abductor pollicis digitorum superficialis Tendon of flexor brevis Lumbricals pollicis longus Pisiform bone Tendon of extensor Opponens pollicis brevis digiti minimi Flexor pollicis brevis Flexor digiti Flexor digitorum minimi brevis Abductor pollicis superficialis Tendon of flexor brevis Abductor digiti carpi radialis minimi Opponens pollicis Flexor retinaculum Tendons of: (b) Palmar dissection, superficial Tendons of: Abductor pollicis Flexor carpi ulnaris longus Flexor carpi Flexor digitorum Figure 10.31b radialis superficialis Flexor pollicis Palmaris longus longus (a) Palmar aspect, superficial Figure 10.31a 10-125
    126. 126. Thenar Group Adductor pollicisorigin insertion 10-126
    127. 127. Thenar Group Abductor pollicis brevisorigin insertion 10-127
    128. 128. Thenar Group Flexor pollicis brevisorigin insertion 10-128
    129. 129. Thenar Group Opponens pollicisorigin insertion 10-129
    130. 130. Hypothenar Group Abductor digiti minimiorigin insertio n posterior 10-130 view
    131. 131. Hypothenar Group Flexor digiti minimi brevisorigin insertion posterior view 10-131
    132. 132. Hypothenar Group Opponens digiti minimiorigin insertion 10-132
    133. 133. Midpalmar Group Dorsal interosseous (4) muscles origin insertionfour muscles 10-133
    134. 134. Midpalmar GroupPalmar interosseous (3) Muscles origin insertion 10-134
    135. 135. Midpalmar GroupLumbricals (4) muscles insertion 10-135
    136. 136. Muscles Acting on the Hip & Femur – Iliopsoasinsertion
    137. 137. Muscles Acting on the Hip & Femur – Iliacus origin insertion
    138. 138. Muscles Acting on the Hip & Femur – Psoas Major insertion origins
    139. 139. Muscles Acting on the Hip & Femur – Tensor Fasciae Latae origin
    140. 140. Muscles Acting on the Hip & Femur – Deep Gluteal Muscles medius maximus minimus
    141. 141. Muscles Acting on the Hip & Femur – Gluteus Maximus insertion origin
    142. 142. Muscles Acting on the Hip & Femur – Gluteus Medius origin insertion sciatic nerve
    143. 143. Muscles Acting on the Hip & Femur – Gluteus Minimus origin insertion sciatic nerve
    144. 144. Muscles Acting on the Hip & Femur – Deep Muscles Gemelius Superior & Inferior Obturator Externus Piriformis Quadratus Femoris
    145. 145. Muscles Acting on the Hip & Femur – Adductor Brevis insertion origin
    146. 146. Muscles Acting on the Hip & Femur – Adductor Longus origin insertion
    147. 147. Muscles Acting on the Hip & Femur – Adductor Magnus origin insertions
    148. 148. Muscles Acting on the Hip & Femur – Gracilis insertion origin
    149. 149. Muscles Acting on the Hip & Femur – Pectineus insertion origin
    150. 150. Muscles Acting on the KneeAnterior (extensor) Compartment Quadriceps femoris group rectus femoris vastus lateralis vastus medialis vastus intermedius
    151. 151. Muscles Acting on the KneeAnterior (extensor) Compartment Rectus femoris origin
    152. 152. Muscles Acting on the KneeAnterior (extensor) Compartment Vastus origin origins lateralis
    153. 153. Muscles Acting on the KneeAnterior (extensor) Compartment Vastus origins medialis
    154. 154. Muscles Acting on the KneeAnterior (extensor) Compartment Vastus intermedius origin
    155. 155. Muscles Acting on the Knee Anterior (extensor) Compartment insertion originSartorius
    156. 156. Muscles Acting on the KneeAnterior (extensor) Compartment Tensor fascia lata origin
    157. 157. Anterior Thigh Cadaver Muscles Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lateral Medial Tensor fasciae latae Femoral vein Iliopsoas Femoral artery Sartorius Pectineus Adductor longus Iliotibial band Quadriceps femoris: Gracilis Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Quadriceps tendon Patella © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Rebecca Gray, photographer/Don Kincaid, dissections Figure 10.34 10-157
    158. 158. Muscles Acting on the Knee Posterior (flexor) Hamstring Compartment Group Long head of Semimembranosus Biceps femoris m. m. Semitendinosus m. Short head of Biceps femoris m.
    159. 159. Muscles Acting on the Knee Posterior (flexor) Compartment BicepsSemitendinosus Semimembranosus femoris short long head head
    160. 160. Muscles Acting on the KneePosterior (flexor) Compartment Biceps insertion femoris origin long short head head
    161. 161. Muscles Acting on the KneePosterior (flexor) Compartment Semimembranosus insertion origin
    162. 162. Muscles Acting on the KneePosterior (flexor) Compartment Semitendinosus insertion origin
    163. 163. Muscles Acting on the KneePosterior (flexor) Compartment insertion Popliteus
    164. 164. Muscles Acting on the Foot Anterior Compartment originExtensordigitorum longus insertion
    165. 165. Muscles Acting on the Foot Anterior Compartment originExtensorhallicus insertion longus
    166. 166. Muscles Acting on the Foot Anterior Compartment tendon originTibialis anterior insertion
    167. 167. Muscles Acting on the Foot Posterior Compartment – sup.Gastrocnemius origins medial lateral head head Achilles tendon insertion
    168. 168. Muscles Acting on the Foot Posterior Compartment – sup. originSoleus Achilles tendoninsertion
    169. 169. Muscles Acting on the FootPosterior Compartment – sup. Plantaris insertion Calcaneus origin
    170. 170. Muscles Acting on the Foot Posterior Compartment – deep Flexor origin digitorum longus insertion tendontendon
    171. 171. Muscles Acting on the FootPosterior Compartment – deep origin Tibialisinsertion posterior tendon
    172. 172. Muscles Acting on the Foot Lateral (fibular) Compartment origin Fibularis(peroneus) longus & tendon insertion brevis
    173. 173. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot Dorsal Aspect Extensor digitorum brevis origin insertion 10-173
    174. 174. Intrinsic Muscles of the FootVentral Layer 1 – most superficial Flexor digitorum brevis origin insertion 10-174
    175. 175. Intrinsic Muscles of the FootVentral Layer 1 – most superficial Abductor digiti minimi origin insertion 10-175
    176. 176. Intrinsic Muscles of the FootVentral Layer 1 – most superficial Abductor hallucis origin insertion 10-176
    177. 177. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot Ventral Layer 2 Quadratus plantae origin insertion 10-177
    178. 178. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot Ventral Layer 2 Lumbricals 10-178
    179. 179. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot Ventral Layer 3 Adductor hallucis origin insertion 10-179
    180. 180. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot Ventral Layer 3 Flexor digiti minimi brevis origin 10-180 insertion
    181. 181. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot Ventral Layer 3 Flexor hallucis brevis origin 10-181 insertion
    182. 182. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot Ventral Layer 4 - DeepestDorsal interosseous (4) muscles origin 10-182 insertion
    183. 183. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot Ventral Layer 4 - DeepestPlantar interosseous (3) muscles origin 10-183 insertion
    184. 184. Common Athletic Injuries• Muscles and tendons are vulnerable to sudden and intense stress• Proper conditioning and warm-up needed• Common injuries include: – Compartment syndrome – Shinsplints – Pulled hamstrings – Tennis elbow – Pulled groin – Rotator cuff injury• Treat with rest, ice, compression, and elevation• “No pain, no gain” is a dangerous misconception 10-184

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