In recent years, however, it has been suggested by Vincent Carretta that Equiano may not have been born in Africa at all. According to Carretta, Equiano may have been born a slave in South Carolina - at that time one of the thirteen British colonies in North America. Indeed, if Carretta's evidence - Equiano's baptismal records, and a naval muster roll - is accurate, there is a possibility that Equiano never visited Africa. The early parts of his autobiography may reflect the oral history of other slaves, combined with information Equiano gleaned from books he had read about Africa.WhileCarretta's research opens up a very important debate, we do need to be cautious. Carretta's research strongly suggests that the young Equiano told people that his birthplace was Carolina. However, as a slave and later a recently freed slave, Equiano might have had any number of reasons to disguise his true origins. Indeed, although we can be reasonably sure that Equiano sometimes told people he was from Carolina, there is no conclusive proof that his birthplace was actually there and, until such proof emerges (if it ever does), there is no real reason to doubt the essential truth of Equiano's account of his childhood in Africa. Even if it is ever proved that Equiano was born in Carolina, it is important to stress that it is unlikely that Equiano would have invented an African origin merely to deceive the reading public. Instead, he may have included the real experience of many other slaves in his effort to make the strongest possible case against slavery and the slave trade.
1. A Kidnapped Prince: Olauda Equiano
Does this man look like a slave?2. Olaudah Equiano was born free in an Ibovillage near the Niger River in the land nowcalled Nigeria. His father was a wealthy chief.He became a slave.He traveled around the world and he earnedmoney to buy his freedom.He wrote a popular book about his life in 1790.
3.Why is this book important?•First English languageaccount of slavery.•Early example of a slavenarrative.
http://www.childrensbestbooks.com/ In Ibo language,Olaudah Equiano means"when he speaks, others listen."
4. Olauda Equiano was born about 1745 in Essaka, an Ibo village in the southeast of present-day Nigeria. ttp://www.history-map.com/picture/000/Africa-North-Map-of.htm
http://www.childrensbestbooks.com/ With us the slaves do no more work than other members of the community, than even their master; their food, clothing and lodging were nearly the same as ours, except that they were not permitted to eat with those who were free-born.
http://www.childrensbestbooks.com/ One day, all our people were gone out to their works as usual, and only I and my dear sister were left to mind the house. Two men and a woman got over our walls, and in a moment seized us both. Without giving us time to cry out, or make resistance, they stopped our mouths, and ran off with us into the nearest wood. Here they tied our hands, and continued to carry us.
5. The kidnappers took the children to the coast of Africa where they stayed in a prison for six months.
Commercial agreement.This is an agreement among merchants involvedin the sale and transportation of slavesbetween Timbuktu in Mali and Ghadamas in Libya. Loaned by the Mamma HaidaraCommemorative Library, Timbuktu, Malihttp://www.loc.gov/exhibits/mali/images/amm0021rs.jpg
The Triangular Trade Route http://www.decsy.org.uk/downloads/Triangular-Trade-map.gif
The Triangular Trade New England Rum Guns Cloth Tools SugarMolasses Lumber Fish Flour West Indies West Africa Enslaved Africans
A slave holding pen on Gorée Island, Senegal.http://www.vagabondish.com/wp-content/uploads/portal-of-sorrow-goree-island.jpg
6. Olauda Equiano never saw his sister nor the rest of his family ever again.
http://www.childrensbestbooks.com/Olaudah Equiano never saw the ocean nor ships before. I no longer doubted my fate and quite a … I looked round the ship and saw overpowered with horror and anguish, large furnace of copper boiling. I fell motionless on the deck and fainted.. people of every description … Black were chained together, every one of theirasked if we were not to be eaten by I countenances expressing those white men with horrible looks, dejection and sorrow. red faces and long hair?
7. Equiano wrote about his terrible experiences on the slave ship.“The shrieks of the women and the groans of the dying rendered the wholea scene of horror almost inconceivable.”
The Travels of Olaudah Equiano, Part I: Taken into Slavery –1756 http://www.decsy.org.uk/downloads/Triangular-Trade-map.gif
9. In 1757, a British naval lieutenant named Michael Pascal bought Olauda Equiano.Lieutenant Pascal took him from Virginia to London. http://viceroybooks.com.au/product_info.php?manufacturers_id=20&products_id=332&osCsid=aeffa9fce90a107000a85a041d526a0 0
England is north of here. http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/graphics/triangulartrade.jpg
10. The officer changed Equiano’s name to GustavusVassa. Gustav Vassa: became king of Sweden in 1523. He won a war of freedom for Sweden.http://pro.corbis.com/images/PG5279.jpg?size=67&uid=996B1FD1-AC53-4619-8FFF-AEFD7626344F
11. While he was Lieutenant Pascal’s slave, Olaudah Equiano has new experiences:He lived in London and learned how to read and write in English.He became a Christian in 1759. http://www.newforestnpa.gov.uk/text/great_britain_and_nfnp4web1.jpg tMargaretsChurch.jpg
A book of church records shows Olaudah Equiano’s acceptance of Christianity as a youngslave in Great Britain. http://www.equiano.soham.org.uk/biography.htm
http://www.brycchancarey.com/equiano/biog.htm12. As the slave of a naval officer, he trained to become a sailor.Equiano joined his master fighting sea battles against France in the Mediterranean and North America.His job: carrying gun powder to the deck.
The Travels of Olaudah Equiano, Part II: Slave to a Royal Naval Officer –1757-1762 http://www.decsy.org.uk/downloads/Triangular-Trade-map.gif
13. Great Britain won the Seven Years War. (Americans called this the French and Indian War.)After victories, British sailorswon prize money, but Lieutenant Pascal refused toshare his money with Olaudah Equiano.Captain Pascal sold Equiano to a sea captain who brought him back to theCaribbean islands.
14. On the island of Montserrat, a Quaker merchant from Philadelphia, Robert King,bought Equiano.
14. On the island of Montserrat, a Quaker merchant from Philadelphia, Robert King,bought Equiano.Robert King saw that Equiano was skilled in reading and writing.King gave him business work on his ships.
14. On the island of Montserrat, a Quaker merchant from Philadelphia, Robert King,bought Equiano.Robert King saw that Equiano was skilled in reading and writing.King gave him business work on his ships.Equiano had free time and was able to earn his own money.
The Travels of Olaudah Equiano, Part Slave to a Quaker Merchant –1762-1766 III: http://www.decsy.org.uk/downloads/Triangular-Trade-map.gif
15. Robert King promised, “If you pay me£40, I will give you your freedom.”In 1766, Equiano earned his freedom after saving money for three years.At that time, £40 was equal to about $4,000 in today’s money.He was twenty-one years old.
“Before night, I who had been a slave in the morning, trembling atthe will of another, was become my own master and completely free.I thought this was the happiest day I had ever experienced.”
16. Robert King respected Equiano. He asked him to become his businesspartner.North America was a dangerous place for Africans because men kidnapped FreeAfricans and forced them to become slaves.Equiano declined King’s offer. He decided to go back to Great Britain. http://www.clker.com/cliparts/3/b/1/1/1207583894321393493bobocal_Shaking_Hands.svg.hi.png
17. Olauda Equiano, aka GustavasVassa, sailed back to Great Britain. http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/Winter03-04/images/cart_barber.jpg
17. Olauda Equiano, aka GustavasVassa, sailed back to Great Britain.1. He found his old master, Lieutenant Pascal. Equiano demanded that Pascal give him his prize money, but he was unsuccessful.2. He got a paycheck from the Royal Navy.3. He trained to become a hairdresser. http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/Winter03-04/images/cart_barber.jpg
18. Olaudah Equiano wanted to earn more money, so he returned to sailing.He traveled around the Mediterranean Sea.He joined a ship that explored the North Pole, where he escaped an attackfrom a polar bear. http://greeningwashington.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/polar-bear2.jpg
19. In 1775, Equiano returned to the Caribbean to start a plantation in Central America.There were slaves on the plantation and he tried to help them.
The North PoleThe Travels of Olaudah Equiano, Part IV: A Free Man –1766-1797 http://www.decsy.org.uk/downloads/Triangular-Trade-map.gif
20. Equiano became involved in the new movement to abolish slavery in England. First, he became a popular speaker. Later, he wrote the story of his life in a book. The book was published in 1789.Equiano’s book became wildly popular in England, Europe and North America.Sales of the book made him rich.After reading it, many readers were convinced that slavery should be stopped.
http://www.equiano.soham.org.uk/extraordinary-equiano.htmActors portrayed Gustavas and Susannah in a movie made in England in 2007.
In 2007, the church put up this plaque to remember their wedding. http://www.equiano.soham.org.uk/wedding.htm
22. The couple traveled together around England as Equiano sold his book and made speeches supporting the abolition of slavery.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Olaudah_Equiano_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_15399.png
23. They had two daughters.Anna Maria was born in 1792 and Joanna was born in 1795.
24. The rest of this story is sad.Susannah, Equiano’s wife, died in 1796, after the birth of Joanna.She was only 34 years old.Equiano died a year later in 1797. He was about 51.The eldest daughter, Anna Maria, died when she was four years old.
Joanna inherited a lot of money from her father’s earnings.
Historians think that Joanna Vassa wasraised by her mother’s family.When she was 27, Joanna married apreacher, Henry Bromley.She helped him organize the SundaySchool in his church. This is an imagined picuture of Joanna Vassa with her father, Olaudah Equiano. http://www.breakingthechains.co.uk/news.jsp?newsID=14
Catherine Ancholou is an Associate Professor of English Literature in theAwukuCollege of Education, NigeriaShe wrote The Igbo Roots Of Olaudah Equiano: An Anthropological Research in 1989.http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1i3011.html
Nobody had any idea what happenedto those who left the shores of Africa.…at that time, those who went beyondAfrica never came back.Nobody could tell the story.
Nobody had any idea what happened It was only after the colonial mastersto those who left the shores of Africa.began to return with the freed slaves, someof whom time, those who went beyond…at that had received some form ofeducation and wereback. in asAfrica never came comingmissionaries.Nobody could tell the story. This was…when the stories began tofilter in.
http://www.100greatblackbritons.com/archive/eq_sc.html25. Olaudah Equiano died in 1797……ten years before the slave trade wasabolished;…forty years before the end of slaveryin the United Kingdom;….sixty-eight years before the end ofslavery in the United States.
http://www.100greatblackbritons.com/archive/eq_sc.html25. Olaudah Equiano died in 1797……ten years before the slave trade wasabolished;…forty years before the end of slaveryin the United Kingdom;….sixty-eight years before the end ofslavery in the United States.26. Equiano did not live to see these eventshappen, but his work helped abolish slavery.