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AAH -Mali, Ghana, Songhai

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For D/hh students at ALHS.

For D/hh students at ALHS.

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  • 1. Kingdoms in Ancient West Africa
    http://mapsof.net/africa/static-maps/jpg/africa-satellite-image
  • 2. http://mapsof.net/africa/static-maps/jpg/africa-satellite-image
  • 3. Desert
    Savannah
    Desert
    http://mapsof.net/africa/static-maps/jpg/africa-satellite-image
  • 4. Rivers Oceans Deserts Mountains Lakes
    Nile River Red Sea Sahara Desert Atlas Mountains Lake Victoria
    Zambezi River Mediterranean Sea Kalahari Desert Mount Kilimanjaro Lake Nyasa
    Zaire River Indian Ocean Nubian Desert Lake Tanganyika
    Niger River Atlantic Ocean
    Persian Gulf
  • 5. Mediterranean Sea
    Persian Gulf
    Red Sea
    Atlantic Ocean
    Indian Ocean
    RiversOceansDeserts Mountains Lakes
    Nile RiverRed Sea Sahara DesertAtlas MountainsLake Victoria
    Zambezi RiverMediterranean Sea Kalahari Desert Mount Kilimanjaro Lake Nyasa
    Zaire RiverIndian Ocean Nubian Desert Lake Tanganyika
    Niger RiverAtlantic Ocean
    Persian Gulf
  • 6. Niger River
    Nile River
    Zaire River
    Zambezi River
    RiversOceansDeserts Mountains Lakes
    Nile RiverRed Sea Sahara DesertAtlas MountainsLake Victoria
    Zambezi RiverMediterranean Sea Kalahari Desert Mount Kilimanjaro Lake Nyasa
    Zaire RiverIndian Ocean Nubian Desert Lake Tanganyika
    Niger RiverAtlantic Ocean
    Persian Gulf
  • 7. Atlas Mts.
    Sahara Desert
    Nubian Desert
    Mt. Kilimanjaro
    Kalahari Desert
    RiversOceansDeserts Mountains Lakes
    Nile RiverRed Sea Sahara DesertAtlas MountainsLake Victoria
    Zambezi RiverMediterranean Sea Kalahari Desert Mount Kilimanjaro Lake Nyasa
    Zaire RiverIndian Ocean Nubian Desert Lake Tanganyika
    Niger RiverAtlantic Ocean
    Persian Gulf
  • 8. Lake Victoria
    Lake Nyasa
    Lake Tanganyika
    RiversOceansDeserts Mountains Lakes
    Nile RiverRed Sea Sahara DesertAtlas MountainsLake Victoria
    Zambezi RiverMediterranean Sea Kalahari Desert Mount Kilimanjaro Lake Nyasa
    Zaire RiverIndian Ocean Nubian Desert Lake Tanganyika
    Niger RiverAtlantic Ocean
    Persian Gulf
  • 9. Mediterranean Sea
    Atlas Mts.
    Persian Gulf
    Sahara Desert
    Red Sea
    Nubian Desert
    Niger River
    Nile River
    Zaire River
    Lake Victoria
    Mt. Kilimanjaro
    Atlantic Ocean
    Lake Nyasa
    Indian Ocean
    Lake Tanganyika
    Zambezi River
    Kalahari Desert
    RiversOceansDeserts Mountains Lakes
    Nile RiverRed Sea Sahara Desert Atlas MountainsLake Victoria
    Zambezi RiverMediterranean Sea Kalahari Desert Mount Kilimanjaro Lake Nyasa
    Zaire RiverIndian Ocean Nubian Desert Lake Tanganyika
    Niger RiverAtlantic Ocean
    Persian Gulf
  • 10. AFRICA TODAY
  • 11. Kingdoms of West Africa
    http://mapsof.net/africa/static-maps/jpg/africa-satellite-image
  • 12. There were many empires in West Africa.
    http://mapsof.net/africa/static-maps/jpg/africa-satellite-image
  • 13. Three important West African empires were
    Ghana
    Mali
    Songhai
    http://mapsof.net/africa/static-maps/jpg/africa-satellite-image
  • 14.
  • 15. The three empires of West Africa: Ghana
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ghana_empire_map.png
    Ghana Empire, 790 -1240
  • 16. The three empires of West Africa: Mali
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MALI_empire_map.PNG
  • 17. The three empires of West Africa: Songhai
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SONGHAI_empire_map.PNG
  • 18.
  • 19. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL
    The empires of West Africa grew along the Niger River.
    West African farmers earned money by growing rice and other crops along the Niger River.
  • 20. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1561_map_of_West_Africa_by_Girolamo_Ruscelli.JPGAn old map of the Niger River
  • 21. West Africans also earned money through trade.West African traders traveled in camel caravans the Sahara desert.
    Camel caravan in the Sahara Desert.
  • 22. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL
    West African traders also used the Niger River for transportation.
  • 23. The Niger River today.
    People use pirogues to cross the river in places were there are no bridges.
    http://place2place.blogs.com/photos/uncategorized/2008/01/12/niger_river.jpg
  • 24. Photo of a village on the Niger River.http://www.mulfry.org/MulFry/Mali/images/Niger_River_10.jpg
  • 25. Making mud bricks in front of a warehouse in Mali.http://memory.loc.gov/pnp/ppmsca/09500/09588v.jpg
  • 26. http://memory.loc.gov/pnp/ppmsca/09500/09589v.jpg
  • 27. West African traders earned a lot of money by trading two valuable things:
    salt
    and
    gold
  • 28. West African traders earned a lot of money buy trading two valuable things:
    Salt was used to preserve food.
    This helped people survive.
    Traders brought salt from the northern part of West Africa.
    People loved gold because it was beautiful. Gold came from the southern part of West Africa around the Niger River.
  • 29.
  • 30. Ghana was the first empire in West Africa.
    http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ghan/hd_ghan.htm
    Ghana Empire, 790 -1240
    The capital city of Ghana
  • 31. Ghana was the first empire in West Africa.
    http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ghan/hd_ghan.htm
    Ghana Empire, 790 -1240
    Wagadu is the correct name.
    ‘Ghana’ means king.
  • 32. salt
    gold
    http://mapsof.net/africa/static-maps/jpg/africa-satellite-image
  • 33. From Northern African, traders also brought salt silk cotton glass beads horses mirrors and dates.From the West African empire of Ghana, traders brought gold pepper
  • 34. From Northern African, traders also brought salt silk cotton glass beads horses mirrors and dates.From the West African empire of Ghana, traders brought gold pepper andslaves.
  • 35. Commercial agreement.This is an agreement among merchants involved in the sale and transportation of slaves between Timbuktu in Mali and Ghadamas in Libya.
Loaned by the Mamma HaidaraCommemorative Library, Timbuktu, Mali (21) Mali http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/mali/images/amm0021rs.jpg
  • 36. slave =
  • 37. slave = a person who works with no pay
  • 38. slavery =
  • 39. slavery = about slaves
  • 40. Slavery in Africa:
    • People could become slaves during war time. Captured prisoners could be sent away from their families and become slaves far from home.
    • 41. Some groups kidnapped others to acquire slaves.
    • 42. Most slaves were women.
    • 43. Most slaves did farm work.
    • 44. Grandchildren of slaves often became free.
  • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Medieval_Arab_Slave_Trade.svg
  • 45. The Law of Slavery:The author discusses slavery in West Africa during the 1600s. Slavery is based on Islamic law.The author notes that the fundamental and original nature of humanity is that individuals are free. People may be enslaved only under certain very specific rules governed by Islamic law.Ahmad Baba ibn Ahmad ibnUmaribn Muhammad Aqit al-Tumbukti.
Miraj al-SuudilanaylMajlub al-Sudan
(Ahmad Baba Answers a Moroccan's Questions about Slavery).
Loaned by the Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library, Timbuktu, Mali http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/mali/images/amm0006rs.jpg
  • 46. This certificate gives a detailed physical description of a woman granted her freedom by her owner.
    The follows Islamic law.
    Certificate of emancipation for female slave.Loaned by the Mamma HaidaraCommemorative Library,Timbuktu, Malihttp://www.loc.gov/exhibits/mali/mali-checklist.html
  • 47. First, the merchants of Ghana traded with the Romans.Later, they traded with North African Muslims.
  • 48. The people of Ghana learned about Islam from North African traders.
  • 49. Traders helped to make Islam popular in North Africa.
  • 50. http://africa.si.edu/collections/rsdadvnNav.asp?BrowseMode=3&offset=0Young Muslim students learned to read the Quran by studying Writing Boards like this one.
  • 51. http://wysinger.homestead.com/mali.html- - - - - Trade Routes
  • 52. The kings of Ghana became rich and powerful because they controlled the business of trade. 1. Traders had to pay taxes to the kings. 2. The kings made it safe for the traders to travel.
  • 53. Religious Leaders v. Religious Leaders Traders v. TradersFighting between groups destroyed the Empire of Ghana in the 1100s.
  • 54. Mali was the second great empire of West Africa.
    http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/mali/hd_mali.htm
  • 55. Sundiata was a great leader of Mali.
  • 56. http://myafrica.allafrica.com/img/csi/user/000100020576_cd4b19d3d7733e16f2a213699e13a11e/m480x.gif
    Sundiata was a Mandinka warrior.
    He ruled Mali beginning around 1210
    for 25 years.
  • 57. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/Diffa_Niger_Griot_DSC_0177.jpgGriots are story tellers who pass on history from adults to children.Griots passed on the story of Sundiata.
  • 58. Holt, Rinehart and Winston
  • 59. http://www.colschildrenstheatre.org/2008-09_Season/upcoming08-2.html#pic
    Griots tell the story of how Sundiata defeated Sumanguru in a great battle.
    Sumanguru challenging Sundjata in a play performed in Columbus, Ohio.
    http://www.colschildrenstheatre.org/2008-09_Season/upcoming08-2.html#pic
  • 60. http://www.eastafricanpublishers.com/images/sundiata.gif
    Mali =
    ‘where the emperor lives.’
  • 61. Timbuktu was the most important city in Mali.
    http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/mali/hd_mali.htm
  • 62. Timbuktu was the center for trade.
  • 63. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews_of_Bilad_el-SudanTimbuktu was the most important city in Mali. It was a center for business, Islam and education.Caravan approaching Timbuktu in 1853 (from Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa by Prof. Dr. Heinrich Barth, vol. iv, London 1858)
  • 64. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/mali/images/amm0011rs.jpg A Math Book from TimbuktuUsing charts and examples of problems, the author shows the rules of addition, subtraction,multiplication and division. The text was used extensively by students inTimbuktu and North Africa.Ahmad ibnSulayman al-Rasmuki.
Kashf al-Hijabli-Asfiya' al-Ahbab anAjnihatal-RighabfiMarifat al-Hisab 
(Explanations of the Problems in Arithmetic with Examples).
Loaned by the Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library, Timbuktu, MaliProf. Dr. Heinrich Barth, vol. iv, London 1858
  • 65. Holt, Rinehart and Winston
  • 66. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/media/uploads/2008/07/timbuktu.jpg
  • 67. http://www.dorlingkindersley-uk.co.uk/static/html/features/where_to_go/images/10Oct/07_timbuktu.jpg
    The Great Mosque of Timbuktu today
  • 68. Jenne was another important city in Mali.
    http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/mali/hd_mali.htm
  • 69. The Great Mosque of Jenne was built in the 1200s.http://sacredsites.com/shop/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=3_11&products_id=29
  • 70. Http://osualexander.googlepages.com/mansa_musa.jpg/mansa_musa-full;init:.jpgMansa Musa was the grandson of Sundiata. He became the leader of Mali in 1312.
  • 71. http://www.cyberstump.com/civ4/leaderheads/mansamusa.jpgMansa Musa was a Muslim.
  • 72. He was famous for traveling on the hajj, a religious trip that Muslims take to Mecca, in 1324.
  • 73. hajj = pilgrimage = religious journey to Mecca
    Mecca, Saudi Arabia, today
    http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/biographies/musa/mecca.html
  • 74. Mansa Musa’s journey to Mecca was very famous.
    A Spanish map-maker made this map about Mansa Musa’s haj.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Europe_Mediterranean_Catalan_Atlas.jpeg
  • 75. http://www.danstopicals.com/catalan.htm
    Mansa Musa journeyed from West Africa to northern Africa,
    then east to Saudi Arabia.
    He traveled with thousands of people and gave away a lot of gold.
    Mansa Musa carrying gold nuggets.
  • 76. http://www.pitt.edu/~natrooms/africa/t4a_files/image007.jpg
  • 77. http://www.chestercomix.com/images/comics/ancient-africa-2.gif
  • 78. http://www.danstopicals.com/catalan.htmWhen Mansa Musa returned to Mali, he brought architects to design mosques, schools and libraries.
  • 79. The leaders that followed after Mansa Musa were weak.There was trouble in Mali. The leaders of Songhai conquered Mali.
  • 80. Songhai was the third great West African empire.
    Songhai
    Gao was an important trading city.
  • 81. A scene in Gao today.
    http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his311/archives/helpers/geog-pic.ht
  • 82. Sunni Ali and AskiaMuhammed were leaders of Songhai.
    AskiaMuhammed built schools and mosques. He was also a good military leader.
    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ab/Askia.jpgThe tomb of AskiaMuhammed in Gao.
  • 83. Holt, Rinehart and Winston
    Problems in West Africa today:
  • 84. West African Art
  • 85. http://africa.si.edu/collections/rsdadvnNav.asp?BrowseMode=3&offset=5Wool kaasa or blankets, woven by the Fulani in the Niger Bend region, are associated with the market of Mopti in Mali.
  • 86. http://africa.si.edu/collections/rsdadvnNav.asp?BrowseMode=3&offset=0
    A face mask from Ghana depicting human countenances with complex coiffures.Masks are worn during Islamic festivals
  • 87. http://africa.si.edu/collections/rsdadvnNav.asp?BrowseMode=3&offset=0Jar Women potters in Mali hand build many different kinds of jars from clay. They add beautiful colors and designs. Some jars are used in special ceremonies or become part of a collection of objects placed in a shrine.
  • 88. http://africa.si.edu/collections/rsdadvnNav.asp?BrowseMode=3&offset=2http://africa.si.edu/collections/rsdadvnNav.asp?BrowseMode=3&offset=4Metal jewelry is very valuable in West African culture.
  • 89. Holt, Rinehart and Winston
  • 90. Holt, Rinehart and Winston
  • 91. Hp;t. Rinehart and WInston
  • 92. Holt, Rinehart and Winston
    A Lake Chad
    B Niger River
    C Gulf of Guinea
    D Timbuktu
    E Senegal River
    F Gambia River
    F
  • 93. Holt, Rinehart and Winston
    A Lake Chad
    B Niger River
    C Gulf of Guinea
    D Timbuktu
    E Senegal River
    F Gambia River
    F
  • 94. Holt, Rinehart and Winston
    A Lake Chad
    B Niger River
    C Gulf of Guinea
    D Timbuktu
    E Senegal River
    F Gambia River
    F
  • 95. Holt, Rinehart and Winston
    A Lake Chad
    B Niger River
    C Gulf of Guinea
    D Timbuktu
    E Senegal River
    F Gambia River
    F
  • 96. Holt, Rinehart and Winston
    A Lake Chad
    B Niger River
    C Gulf of Guinea
    D Timbuktu
    E Senegal River
    F Gambia River
    F
  • 97. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:LocationGambia.svg
  • 98. Gambia is a very small West African country.
  • 99. http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/willow/geography-of-gambia0.gif
  • 100. http://www.dgambia.com/gambia1map.gif
  • 101. http://wikitravel.org/en/Image:TouristCraftStore.jpgA tourist shop in Gambia today.
  • 102. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/the-gambia#photo-26518-7Bamjul, the capital of Gambia
  • 103. http://www.gather.com/viewArticle.action?grpId=3659174697246774&articleId=281474976968309&nav=GroupspaceThe author Alex Haley with relatives in Juffure, Gambia
  • 104. http://www.mrdowling.com/609ancafr.html
    "The old griot had talked for nearly two hours up to then . . . 'the oldest of these fours sons, Kunta, went away from his village and he was never seen again' . . . I sat as if I were carved of stone. My blood seemed to have congealed. “
    --Alex Haley, Roots: The Saga of an American Family, Dell, 1976. Page 719
  • 105. http://www.mrdowling.com/609ancafr.html
    “This man whose lifetime had been in this back-country African village had no way in the world to know that he had just echoed what I had heard all through my boyhood years on my grandma's front porch in Henning, Tennessee.”
    --Alex Haley, Roots: The Saga of an American Family, Dell, 1976. Page 719
  • 106. http://www.britannica.com/blogs/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/roots.jpg
  • 107. http://www.davidjarvisprints.com/AlexHaley.html
  • 108. http://www.davidjarvisprints.com/Roots.html
  • 109. The view through the door of a slave holding pen on Gorée Island, Senegal, which was once a major West African slave trading outpost. Africans captured inland were marched to the coast and held in pens like these, from which they were taken to waiting ships.http://www.vagabondish.com/wp-content/uploads/portal-of-sorrow-goree-island.jpg

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