John Brown


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This presentation is for students in Ms. AmyLC's African American History class.

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John Brown

  1. 1. John Brown
  2. 2. l%20Fine%20Art_CURRY_john%20brown.jpg
  3. 3.
  4. 4. This is John Brown.Was he a crazy religious man? john-brown_1.jpg Was he a freedom fighter?
  5. 5. This is John Brown. Was he a crazy religious man? Was he a freedom fighter?
  6. 6. was born in this house in the the town of Torrington, Connecticut, in 1800.
  7. 7.
  8. 8. His father, Owen Brown, was a serious and very religious man.Owen Brown was an abolitionist.Owen and Ruth Brown had eight children.Their family moved a lot.
  9. 9. family moved to Ohio.
  10. 10. John Brown’s father worked as a tanner.Tanners make leather from animal skins.John Brown learned to become a tanner from his father.
  11. 11. When he was around 12 years old, Owen Brown sent his son John on a businesstrip.During the trip, young John Brown witnessed a master brutally beating a slave. For the rest of his life, he never forgot that experience.
  12. 12. When he was 16, John Brown moved back East to go to college inMassachusetts.He studied to become a minister.
  13. 13. John Brown became sick.He also ran out of money.He had to quit college and move back home.
  14. 14.
  15. 15. In 1820, John Brown married. He and Dianthe, his wife, moved to Pennsylvania.John Brown and Dianthehad a big family.He was a very strict and loving father.
  16. 16. John Brown bought a lot of land in Pennsylvania.He opened a tannery and hired 15 men to work for him making leather.He also earned money trading cattle and by working as a surveyor.
  17. 17. measure land for maps.They measure land so people can identify property boundaries.
  18. 18. The artist Jacob Lawrence painted this picture of JohnBrown surveying land.For 12 years, John Brown engaged in land speculations and wool merchandising; all this tomake some money for his greater work which was the abolishment of slavery.
  19. 19. Jacob Lawrence (1917 – 2000) was an Atlantic City–born artist who lived inHarlem.In 1941, he painted a series of pictures about the life of John Brown. and his wife, the artist Gwendolynn Knight
  20. 20. John Brown and His BibleAround the same time, in 1942, Pennsylvania artist Horace Pippin also createda series of paintings about the life of John Brown.
  21. 21. Pippin (1888 - 1946) was born near Philadelphia and studied at thePennsylvania Academy of Art on Broad Street.
  22. 22. John Brown had hard times.His business skills were poor. He became broke.Some of his children died.In 1832, after their seventh child was born, Dianthe, died.
  23. 23. John Brown was bankrupt and responsible for seven children.The next year, in 1833, he married a teenager, Mary Ann Daly. Mary Ann Daly Brown with two of their daughters. Mary Ann Brown had thirteen children. Altogether, John Brown had twenty children; eleven grew up to become adults.
  24. 24. Brown and his family moved to Ohio in 1835.In Pennsylvania and Ohio, John Brown worked on the Underground Railroadhelping slaves escape to freedom.
  25. 25. Like many American abolitionists, JohnBrown read this abolitionist newspaper,The Liberator. William Lloyd Garrison published The Liberator.
  26. 26. In 1837, John Brown heard about the abolitionist, Elijah Lovejoy.
  27. 27. Elijah Lovejoy was a minister and a newspaper publisher.He lived in Alton, Illinois.
  28. 28. Lovejoy’s newspaper, the Alton Observer, printed stories supporting endingslavery.
  29. 29. of slavery did not like Lovejoy’s abolitionist newspaper.They already destroyed three of his newspaper presses –angry mobs threw theprinting presses in the Mississippi River.
  30. 30. In 1837, after abolitionists helped Lovejoy get a fourth new printing press,angry mobs burned the newspaper building.Someone shot Elijah Lovejoy and killed him.
  31. 31. 1837, Abolitionists helped Lovejoy get a fourth new printing press.Angry mobs burned the newspaper building.Someone shot Elijah Lovejoy and killed him.
  32. 32. John Brown was angry about the murder of Elijah Lovejoy.He chose to focus his life on one purpose: abolishing slavery.
  33. 33. “Here, before God, in thepresence of these witnesses,from this time, I consecrate mylife to the destruction ofslavery!” He made a speech at Lovejoy’s funeral.
  34. 34. Brown wanted to do anything to help stop slavery.In a letter to his brother, John Brown wrote that he and Mary wanted toadopt an African American child and start a school for African Americanchildren.Brown invited African Americans to attend his church.After some white church members became angry, he stopped going tothe church. (Some say the church kicked him out.) Brown had a lot of troubles.Several of children died from illness.
  35. 35. John Brown worked in the sheep business.He became an expert on sheep and wool.He and two of his sons moved to Massachusetts to start a woolbusiness.
  36. 36.
  37. 37. Many farmers respected Brown as an expert in the wool business,but he made bad decisions, lost a lot of money and had to end this work.
  38. 38. Brown heard Frederick Douglass, the escaped slave who made speeches aboutabolition.In 1847, he invited Douglass to his home for dinner. Douglass said this about JohnBrown: "Though a white gentleman, he is in sympathy with the black man and as deeply interested in our cause…He thought that he had no better use for his life than to lay it down in the cause of the slave."
  39. 39. Brown heard about a rich abolitionist who helped free African American farmersin New York state.In 1848, Brown moved his family there to live with the community of AfricanAmericans.
  40. 40. Brown formed an organization among thecolored people of the Adirondack woods to resistthe capture of any fugitive slave.
  41. 41. Why did African Americans need protection?After Congress passed a lawcalled the Fugitive Slave Act,many slaves who escaped wereworried about being arrested andsent back to their masters.Free African Americans weresometimes kidnapped, too, andforced to become slaves.
  42. 42. The Brown family farm in New Elba, New York. hired free African Americans to work on the farm.He invited an escaping slave to hide in his home.
  43. 43.
  44. 44. After the Gold Rush of 1849, many people moved to California.In 1850,California changed from being a territory to a state – a free state thatdid not support slavery.
  45. 45. Many Americans moved west to buy cheap farm land.
  46. 46. Many Americans moved west to Kansas territory.
  47. 47. In the 1850s, Kansas was not yet a state. Kansas
  48. 48. 1854, Congress passed a law called the Kansas-Nebraska Act.The law explained that new settlers could vote if they wanted freedom or slavery in theirstate.
  49. 49.
  50. 50. Free Staters Pro-Slavery
  51. 51. Pro-slavery supporters from Missouri went to Kansas to fight Free-Staters.
  52. 52. Brown’s sons did not want Kansas to allowslavery.They needed protection from proslavery supporters.
  53. 53. Brown’s sons wrote letters to their father asking for help.In 1855, he traveled west with money and weapons to support his sons.He also thought he would use his surveying skills to draw boundaries aroundthe state of Kansas.
  54. 54. This time was called“Bleeding Kansas.” In 1856, inthe city of Lawrence, Kansas, proslavery supporters burned abolitionist homes and newspaper offices.
  55. 55. Proslavery Representative Preston Brooks of South Carolina Abolitionist Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts of slavery fought abolitionists in the Capitol building inWashington, D.C.
  56. 56. Kansas, John Brown was angry about the fighting in Lawrence and thebeating of Senator Sumner in Congress.He and a group of men decided to fight proslavery settlers.
  57. 57. John Brown took to guerilla warfare.John Brown, his sons and their friends fought battles against pro-slaverysupporters. In May, 1856, five pro-slavery supporters were murdered in Kansas.People blamed John Brown and his sons.Frederic Brown died in one of the battles.
  58. 58. statue of John Brown is inOsawatomie, Kansas, where hisson was killed.
  59. 59. Pro-slavery men captured two of John Brown’s sons. Brown and his men fought a battle in Black Jack, Kansas, to free them.John Brown‘s victory at Black Jack drove those pro-slavery to new fury, and those who were anti-slavery to new efforts.
  60. 60. A painting in the Kansas state capital building remembers John Brownand the fight to make Kansas a free state. (It became a free state in1861.) The Tragic Prelude, painted by John Steurt Curry
  61. 61.
  62. 62. The Browns left Kansas and went East.
  63. 63. During this time, John Brown wrote the following in a letter:
  64. 64. John Brown decided that fighting was the only solution to end slavery. He made plans to start a war. end_of_ John_Brown/Lawrence_Jacob -John_Brown-1 3.htmlJohn Brown, after long meditation, planned to fortify himself somewhere in the mountains of Virginiaor Tennessee and there make raids on the surrounding plantations, freeing slaves.
  65. 65. two years, Browntraveled and madespeeches.
  66. 66. In the summer of 1859, Brown met with Frederick Douglas in southern Pennsylvania.Brown tried very hard to convince Douglas to become involved in his plan.When he thought the police were looking for him in 1858, Brown hid in FrederickDouglass’s home in Rochester, New York.
  67. 67. In 1858, he traveled to Canada to get support for the war. While he was in Canada, he wrote a Constitution for a new, abolitionist government with freedom for all people.John Brown made many trips to Canada organizing for his assault on Harpers Ferry.
  68. 68. A scene from the movie The Santa Fe Trail.How do you think this movie portrays John Brown?
  69. 69.
  70. 70. Brown met Harriet Tubman in Canada.He respected her and called her “General Tubman.”She agreed to help him fight the war. <a href=""><imgsrc="
  71. 71. He continued to makespeeches about his plan tofight for freedom.Rich abolitionists gave JohnBrown money.
  72. 72. Samuel Gridley Howe Thomas Wentworth Higginson Theodore Parker Franklin SanbornGerrit SmithGeorge Luther Stearns
  73. 73. Why did John Brown need money to stop slavery?
  74. 74.
  75. 75. This is a pike.
  76. 76.
  77. 77. some of the money, John Brown paid for 1,000pikes in 1858. He also bought 200 rifles.
  78. 78. His plan: 1. Go to Harpers Ferry, Virginia, where the army had a lot ofweapons. 2. Cut off train and telegraph communication. 3. Capture weapons from the army’s rifle factories and the armory.* 4. Get support from Virginia slaves to fight slavery. *armory: storage place for
  79. 79. After starting the battle in Virginia, Brown expected many slaves would escapeto join the fight for freedom.
  80. 80. Painting of John Brown by Ole Peter Hansen Balling (1823– 1906)
Oil on canvas, circa 1873
  81. 81. There was gossip about John Brown’s plans, so he returned to Kansas.He joined a group that went into Missouri and freed twelve slaves.He lead the slaves on a 1,000 mile journey to freedom in Canada.In spite of a price on his head, John Brown liberated 12 Negroes from Missouri plantations.
  82. 82. the summer 1859, John Brown went to Virginia to begin the war.s
  83. 83. John Brown decided to start the war in the town of Harpers Ferry,Virginia.
  84. 84.
  85. 85. Why did Brown choose to start the war in Harpers Ferry?
  86. 86. Reason #1: Since the 1700s, the US army had rifle factories in HarpersFerry.He wanted to capture the weapons to support his army.
  87. 87. Reason #2: Brown believed his army could hide easily in the mountainssurrounding Harpers Ferry.
  88. 88. In June, 1859, John Brown rented this farm owned by the Kennedy familynear Harpers Ferry.He told his neighbors that his name was Isaac Smith.He used the farm as the meeting place to begin the war.
  89. 89. The Kennedy farmhouse today.
  90. 90.
  91. 91.
  92. 92. Brown asked his wife, Mary Ann, to come to Virginia, but she refused toleave their home in New Elba, New York.
  93. 93. John Brown’s son, Oliver, and his wife, Martha came to the farm.They hoped the neighbors would believe they were an ordinary family. Brown’s daughter, Annie, came also.
  94. 94. One of Brown’s men sent rifles and pikes to the farm in boxes labeled “Hardware” and “Bibles.”July 3, 1859, John Brown stocked an old barn with guns and ammunitions.He was ready to strike his first blow at slavery.
  95. 95. ―When I washed dishes, I stood at theend of the table where I could see out ofthe window and open door if any oneapproached the house.‖ Annie Brown and Martha watched out for nosey neighbors.
  96. 96. During July and August, men secretly arrived.They stayed inside all day.They came out to practice at night when no one could see them.
  97. 97. SmithsonianIn August, 1859, Brown met with FrederickDouglas in southern Pennsylvania.Brown tried very hard to convince Douglasto join his plan to start a war.
  98. 98. ―I at once opposed the measure. It would be an attack upon thefederal government and array thewhole country against us.All his descriptions of the placeconvinced me that he was going intoa perfect steel trap, and that once inhe would never get out alive.‖ In the summer of 1859, Brown met with Frederick Douglas in southern Pennsylvania. Brown tried very hard to convince Douglas to become involved in his plan. suicide. Douglass refused to participate. He said Brown’s plan was
  99. 99. Harriet Tubman was sick and unable to help. <a href=""><imgsrc="
  100. 100. Brown expected a lot men to join his war.Only 21 men came to the farmhouse.
  101. 101. Twenty-one men joined John Browns army in Harpers Ferry.The men were African American and white, rich and poor, born free and born in slavery, college students and three of John Brown’s sons.
  102. 102. H. Kagi Watson Brown Oliver Brown Owen Brown Aaron StevensShields Green Dangerfield Newby Lewis Leary Osborne Anderson John Copeland
  103. 103. Edwin Coppoc Barclay Coppoc Francis J. Merriam Charles Tidd
  104. 104. Owen Brown Oliver Brown Watson Brown
  105. 105. Shields Green Dangerfield Newby John Copeland, Jr.Osborne Perry Lewis Sheridan Leary
  106. 106. The men discussed the plan.
  107. 107. 1. Go to Harpers Ferry, Virginia, where the army had thousands ofweapons.2. Cut off train and telegraph communication. 3. Capture weapons from the army’s rifle factory. 4. Get support from Virginia slaves.
  108. 108. 1. Go to Harpers Ferry, Virginia, where the army had thousands ofweapons. 2. Cut off train and telegraph communication.3. Capture weapons from the army’s rifle factory. 4. Get support from Virginia slaves.
  109. 109. 1. Go to Harpers Ferry, Virginia, where the army had thousands ofweapons. 2. Cut off train and telegraph communication. 3. Capture weapons from the army’s rifle factories.4. Get support from Virginia slaves.
  110. 110. 1. Go to Harpers Ferry, Virginia, where the army had thousands ofweapons. 2. Cut off train and telegraph communication. 3. Capture weapons from the army’s rifle factories. 4. Get support from Virginia slaves to fight slavery.
  111. 111. View of Harpers Ferry
  112. 112. A View of Harpers Ferry
  113. 113. A View of Harpers FerryHarpers Ferry, at the time of John Browns raidA newspaper illustration of Harpers Ferry, at the time of John Browns raid.Date: 1859
  114. 114. A View of Harpers Ferry
  115. 115. A View of Harpers Ferry Today
  116. 116. Sunday, October 16, 1859, John Brown with a company of 21 men, white and black, marched on Harpers Ferry.
  117. 117. first, the plan to raid Harpers Ferry worked perfectly.
  118. 118. They successfully cut the telegraph wires and easily captured the armory.
  119. 119. At midnight, the raiders kidnapped some slave owners and freed theirslaves.One of the hostages was Lewis Washington, a great-grand-nephew ofPresident George Washington.
  120. 120. Problems began when a train entered town around 1:00 A.M.Hayward Shepherd, a free African American man train station worker,warned the passengers about the raiders.Brown’s men shouted at Shepherd to stop, but he did not.Brown’s men shot Shepherd.The first man killed by John Brown’s group was a free African American.
  121. 121. After five hours, Brown allowed the train to leave.
  122. 122. The train arrived in Baltimore. Early Monday morning, the conductorsent his supervisor a telegram:Monocacy, 7.05 A. M., October 17, 1859.Express train bound east, under my charge, was stopped this morning atHarpers Ferry by armed abolitionists.They have possession of the bridge and the arms and armory of theUnited States.Myself and Baggage Master have been fired at, and Hayward, thecolored porter, is wounded very severely, being shot through the body, theball entering the body below the left shoulder blade and coming outunder the left side.
  123. 123. There was no place for John Brown and his men to escape Around 3:00 PM, Monday afternoon, the raiders were forced to hide in the Engine House, a small building.People in Harpers Ferry found out about the raid.Around 7:00 A.M., farmers, shopkeepers and the militia got together.They began shooting the raiders.By 10:00 A.M, they surrounded John Brown and his men.
  124. 124.
  125. 125.
  126. 126. The Engine House
  127. 127. Both sides shot each other.There was shooting all day.
  128. 128.
  129. 129. Brown held Harpers Ferry for 12 hours. His defeat was a few hours off.
  130. 130.
  131. 131. Oliver Brown was wounded. He begged his father to kill him and end his suffering.Brown said, "If you must die, die like a man." A few minutes later he was dead.
  132. 132.
  133. 133. Mary E. Mauzy lived in Harpers Ferry.She wrote this letter to her daughter in England that Monday. To Eugenia Burton, Enfield, England October 17, 1859 Monday afternoon 4 oclock Oh my dear friend such a day as this. Heaven forbid that I should ever witness such another. Last night a band of ruffians took possession of the town, took the keys of the armory and made Captive a great many of our Citizens. I cannot write the particulars for I am too Nervous. For such a sight as I have just beheld. Our men chased them in the river just below here and I saw them shot down like dogs. I saw one poor wrech [sic] rise above the water and some one strike him with a club he sank again and in a moment they dragged him out a Corpse. I do not know yet how many are shot but I shall never forget the sight. They just marched two wreches [sic] their Arms bound fast up to the jail. My dear husband shouldered his rifle and went to join our men May god protect him. Even while I write I hear the guns in the distance I heard they were fighting down the street. I cannot write any more I must wait and see what the end will be. —M.E. Mauzy
  134. 134. citation?The U.S. Marines arrived in Harpers Ferry late at nighton Monday, October 17.They surrounded Brown and his men.They ordered John Brown to surrender, but herefused.
  135. 135. I prefer to die here.
  136. 136.
  137. 137. John Brown’s Day of ReckoningJohn Brown and many of his followers waited in a fire engine house for reinforcement by aswarm of ‗bees‘ –slaves from surrounding area. But only a handful showed up.
  138. 138. On Tuesday morning, October 18, at 7:00 AM, the marines broke down thedoors of the engine house. citation?
  139. 139.
  140. 140. marines captured Brown and the men in three minutes.
  141. 141. modern artist recreates the capture of John Brown by Lieutenant Israel Greene.
  142. 142. the prisoners out of the engine house at Harpers Ferry
  143. 143. John H. Kagi Watson Brown Oliver Brown Owen Brown Aaron StevensShields Green Dangerfield Newby Lewis Leary Osborne Anderson John Copeland killed in the raid captured and executed escaped
  144. 144. These men escaped: Browns son Owen, Charles P. Tidd, Barclay Coppoc, Francis J. Merriam, and free African American Osborne P. Anderson.
  145. 145. men were captured, tried in court andhanged: John BrownShields Green Edwin Coppock John Copeland
  146. 146. Frederick Douglass was afraid that the police would think he was involved inthe Harpers Ferry attack.He immediately left for Canada. In November, he sailed from Canada toEngland.
  147. 147. Burying dead insurgents after Harpers Ferry Insurrection. A sketch of the dead Harpers Ferry insurgents being buried. Frank Leslie‘s Illustrated Newspaper, 1859http://www.
  148. 148. Governor Wise, of Virginia and District Attorney Ould Examining the Wounded Prisoners in the Presenceof the Officers, the Reporter of the N.Y. Herald and Our Special Artist [Albert Berghaus] Frank Leslies Illustrated Newspaper, 29 October 1859 ttp://
  149. 149. Brown and the survivors went to jail and waited for their days in court.
  150. 150. After Browns raid in Harpers Ferry, the state of Virginia imprisoned him in Charlestown. This is the lock and key from the door to his cell. After his capture, he was restrained with shackles and this collar and handcuffs. This noose was used to execute Brown on December 2, 1859. photograph by Michael Keller
  151. 151.
  152. 152., a wounded prisoner (Harper‘s Magazine)
  153. 153. The Trial of John Brown
  154. 154. Trial of John Brown, at Charlestown, Virginia, for Treason and Murder. Sketched by Porte Crayon (David Strother) A stricken John Brown is depicted in the center of the courtroom. 1859. Historic Photo Collection, Harpers Ferry National Historic Park.
  155. 155.
  156. 156. carried from court to prison.
  157. 157.
  158. 158. John Brown made speeches in court and wrote a lot of letters while he was in jail. Americans all over the country read about him in the newspaper.
  159. 159. On December, 1859, the trial concluded.John Brown was declared guilty and sentenced to death by hanging.
  160. 160. Mary came to visit her husband the day before his execution.They spent four hours together.
  161. 161. Last Moments of John Brown, by Thomas Hovenden
  162. 162.
  163. 163. ttp://
  164. 164. John Brown Going to His Hanging
  165. 165. John Browns Day of ReckoningAt the gallows, Brown told a guard, "Dont keep me waiting...Be quick."
  166. 166.
  167. 167.
  168. 168. John Brown was found ―Guilty of treason and murder in the 1st degree‖ and was hanged in Charles Town, Virginia on December 2, 1859.
  169. 169. The Hanging of John BrownThe French artist and writer, Victor Hugo, drew this picture in 1860.Europeans were disappointed that Americans chose to execute a man whosegoal was to free slaves.
  170. 170. “I could live for the slave, but he could die for him.”
  171. 171. g
  172. 172. John Brown’s grave in North Elba, New York
  173. 173. Copeland was hanged on December 16.Before his execution, he said this: I am dying for freedom. I could not die for a better cause. I had rather die than be a slave. John Copeland
  174. 174.
  175. 175.
  176. 176.
  177. 177.
  178. 178.
  179. 179.
  180. 180.
  181. 181.
  182. 182. "Marching On" — the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts Colored RegimentSinging John Browns March in the Streets of Charleston,February 21, 1865
  183. 183. John Brown Test:Write an essay with three paragraphs.t Write a paragraph about John Browns life. (5 sentences)tWrite about the war Brown started. (4 sentences)t Was John Brown a crazy terrorist? Was he a freedom fighter? Choose one opinion.Support your answer with reasons. (5 sentences) Email your essay: Due Monday, March 25, 2013.
  184. 184. Fin