Dred Scott:The Slave Who Sued for       Freedom
Who was Dred Scott?Dred Scott was a man who was born a slave.He used the courtstotrygaining his freedom.His case went to t...
When his case reached the U.S. Supreme Court, theconflict grew between
When his case reached the U.S. Supreme Court, theconflict grew between         Americans who were proslavery              ...
Americans argued with each other about Dred Scott‟scase.If you understand Dred Scott‟s story, you canunderstand more about...
Local and State Courts                  Federal Courts                                                                    ...
Dred Scott was born a slave in Southampton County,Virginia around 1799.  He was owned by Peter Blow and ElizabethTaylor Bl...
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/congestion/state_information/images/us_map.gif                                                    ...
In 1818, when Dred Scott was a young man, he movedtwo times with the Blows, their six children andseveral other slaves.   ...
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/congestion/state_information/images/us_map.gif
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/congestion/state_information/images/us_map.gif
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/congestion/state_information/images/us_map.gif                                            St.     ...
Scott continued to work for the Blows for twelveyears.  Later, the Blow family sold Dred Scott to JohnEmerson, an army doc...
Dr. Emerson traveled with the army to free & slave                  http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/congestion/state_information/i...
In 1836, Dr. Emerson was working at Fort Snelling inMinnesota.
Fort Snellinghttp://www.fhwa.dot.gov/congestion/state_information/images/us_map.gif                        is near St.    ...
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/congestion/state_information/images/us_map.gif                       Minnesota: a                 ...
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/congestion/state_information/images/us_map.gif                       Minnesota: a                 ...
At Fort Snelling, Dred Scott met a teen-aged slave,Harriet Robinson. Harriet‟s master permitted her tomarry Dred Scott.  D...
Dr. Emerson moved to Louisiana. There, Dr.Emerson married Irene Sanford.Dred Scott and Harriet stayed in Fort Snelling wit...
Dr. Emerson moved to Louisiana. There, Dr.Emerson married Irene Sanford.Dred Scott and Harriet stayed in Fort Snelling wit...
Hired out?What does that mean?
Slaves who were hired outworked for other bosses andearned money.
Slaves who were hired outworked for other bosses andearned money.
Slaves who were hired outworked for other bosses andearned money.
Lots of times, hired slaveskept the money.
Lots of times, hired slaveskept the money.
Other times, masters keptthe money.
Other times, masters keptthe money.
Around 1843, the Emersons and the Scotts returnedto St. Louis.
In St. Louis, Dred and Harriet Scott were hired outagain. They probably were able to keep some of theirmoney because they ...
Dred and Harriet Scott had four children. Two sonsdied when they were babies.   Their two daughters were Eliza and Lizzie.
In 1843, Dr. Emerson died unexpectedly. He wasonly 40 years old.Dred, Harriet, Eliza and Lizzy Scott became theproperty of...
In 1846, Dred and Harriet Scott filed lawsuitsagainst Irene Emerson.
http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/images/8744-03.jpg  They filed their lawsuits here in the O...
Why did we sue our mistress?
We do not know why Dred and Harriet Scott sued forfreedom at this time.   Here are possible reasons:1. Maybe they were tir...
We lived many years in freestates. Why should we still liveas slaves?
http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/images/8744-03.jpg   Courts in Missouri followed this law: ...
We were not the first slaves tosue for freedom. About 300other slaves sued for freedomin Missouri.About half weresuccessfu...
Local and State Courts                                     Local CourtsThe Scotts sued at the local court level.
There were two trials. The Scotts lost the first trialin 1847.
There were two trials. The Scotts lost the first trialin 1847. In 1850, the court in the second trial decidedthe Scotts mu...
There were two trials. The Scotts lost the first trialin 1847. In 1850, the court in the second trial decidedthe Scotts mu...
There were two trials. The Scotts lost the first trialin 1847. In 1850, the court in the second trial decidedthe Scotts mu...
Mrs. Emerson appealed to the Missouri StateSupreme Court.
Mrs. Emerson appealed* to the Missouri StateSupreme Court.        *appeal = ask a higher court for a new trial
Local and State Courts         State    Supreme Courts         State    Courts of Appeal     United States     District Co...
The Missouri State Supreme Court held a thirdtrial in 1852. The State Supreme Court decided theScotts must remain slaves.
The Missouri State Supreme Court held a thirdtrial in 1852. The State Supreme Court decided theScotts must remain slaves.
I am St. Louis lawyer Roswell Field. I                              spent six years working in the courts to              ...
In 1854, Irene Emerson moved east near her brother.She transferred her ownership of Dred Scott to herbrother, John Sanford...
Local and State Courts                    Federal Courts                                      State                       ...
So, we sued our new owner, Mr. Sanford, in our fourth trial in        Federal Court.
The Scotts lost their fourth trial. The Federal Courtdecided that the Scotts were not citizens, so they hadno right to sue...
The Scotts lost their fourth trial. The Federal Courtdecided that the Scotts were not citizens, so they hadno right to sue...
The Scotts lost their fourth trial. The Federal Courtdecided that the Scotts were not citizens, so they hadno right to sue...
We appealed that decision inour fifth trial in Federal Court.
Local and State Courts     Federal Courts                           United States                          Supreme Court  ...
Local and State Courts     Federal Courts                           United States                          Supreme Court  ...
I‟m Montgomery Blair. In    1856, I went to the Supreme    Court in Washington, D.C.,    to argue the case for the    Scot...
I had to use state laws and    the U.S. Constitution to    convince the nine Supreme    Court Justices that my    argument...
Nine judges sit on the Supreme Court.The Judges are called „Justices.‟They are appointed by the President and approved by ...
TheChief Justice sits here.
This is where the Supreme Curt meets today. This building wascompleted in 1935.During the time of Dred Scott, the court me...
The U.S. Capitol in 1850.The U.S. Capitol building today.
Today‟s Supreme Courtroom.              The          Chief Justice           sits here.
The interior of the Supreme Court in 1857.                     The                 Chief Justice                   sat here.
Seven of the Supreme Court Justices supported the rights of slave owners.    12        3      4       5      6       7    ...
http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/scott.asp                         Roger B. Taney         Cr...
http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/scott.asp                         Roger B. Taney         Cr...
http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/scott.asp                                                  ...
In the Supreme Court, Iargued that “freedom basedon residence in a free statewas permanent.”
“A Negro of African descentcould be a citizen of theUnited States.”
On March 6, 1857, Dred and Harriet Scott finallyreceived a decision about their suit for freedom.
http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/scott.asp                                           Roger B...
http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/scott.asp                                             Roger...
http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/scott.asp                                             Roger...
http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/scott.asp                                              Roge...
http://shs.umsystem.edu/famousmissourians/leaders/dscott/dscotttaney.htmlFifth Amendment: No person shall beheld to answer...
http://shs.umsystem.edu/famousmissourians/leaders/dscott/dscotttaney.htmlFifth Amendment: No person shallbedeprived of lif...
The Supreme Court‟s decision: they were not free.
According to the Supreme Court, Dred, Harriet, Elizaand Lizzie Scott were to remain slaves.
Americans argued with each other about the decisionin Dred Scott‟s case. “Opposition to southern                          ...
Justice Benjamin Curtis was so angry with Chief Justice Taney‟s opinion aboutDred Scott that he resigned from the Supreme ...
Many American leaders hoped that the Dred Scottdecision would end the arguments about slavery.                     It did ...
The Dred Scott decision was an event that helped startthe four year Civil War between North and South.
Slavery ended in 1865, after Congress ratified the 13thAmendment to the United States Constitution:Neither slavery nor inv...
The Scott family did become free, but not becauseof a decision by the courts.Mrs. Emerson married again. Her new husbandwa...
The Scott family did become free, but not becauseof a decision by the courts.Mrs. Emerson married again. Her new husband,D...
Peter Blow, the son of Dred Scott‟s first owner, wasan abolitionist. Three months after the SupremeCourt decision, Peter B...
http://shs.umsystem.edu/famousmissourians/leaders/dscott/dscottobituary.htmlObituary for Dred Scott published in the St. L...
http://www.common-place.org/vol-08/no-03/arenson/The genealogist Jesuit, Father Edward Dowling, rediscovered Scotts graves...
http://news.wustl.edu/news/Pages/8967.aspxJohn A. Madison was Dred and Harriet Scott‟s great-grandson.He was graduated fro...
http://www.thedredscottfoundation.org/dshf/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id                                   ...
http://www.thedredscottfoundation.org/dshf/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=58&Itemid=70
http://www.nps.gov/jeff/parknews/images/finallogo.jpg
http://www.common-place.org/vol-08/no-03/arenson/Young women of keen ability entering their childbearing years, Dred and H...
http://www.lib.unc.edu/coursepages/hist/F08_hist376_001.html
Dred Scott
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Dred Scott

  1. 1. Dred Scott:The Slave Who Sued for Freedom
  2. 2. Who was Dred Scott?Dred Scott was a man who was born a slave.He used the courtstotrygaining his freedom.His case went to the Supreme Court.
  3. 3. When his case reached the U.S. Supreme Court, theconflict grew between
  4. 4. When his case reached the U.S. Supreme Court, theconflict grew between Americans who were proslavery v. Americans who wereabolitionists.
  5. 5. Americans argued with each other about Dred Scott‟scase.If you understand Dred Scott‟s story, you canunderstand more about how the Civil War startedbetween northern states and southern states.
  6. 6. Local and State Courts Federal Courts United States Supreme Court State Supreme Courts State United States Courts of Appeal Courts of Appeals States United States District Courts District Courts Local CourtsIf you understand Dred Scott‟s story, you can understand more about theUnited States CourtSystem.
  7. 7. Dred Scott was born a slave in Southampton County,Virginia around 1799. He was owned by Peter Blow and ElizabethTaylor Blow.Dred was friendly with their children. This is a picture of Dred Scott when he was about 55 years old.
  8. 8. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/congestion/state_information/images/us_map.gif Dred Scott: born in VA about 1799.
  9. 9. In 1818, when Dred Scott was a young man, he movedtwo times with the Blows, their six children andseveral other slaves. First, they moved to a cotton plantation in Alabama.The Blows were not successful farmers. They movedto the big city of St. Louis, Missouri to work in thehotel business.
  10. 10. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/congestion/state_information/images/us_map.gif
  11. 11. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/congestion/state_information/images/us_map.gif
  12. 12. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/congestion/state_information/images/us_map.gif St. Louis, Missouri
  13. 13. Scott continued to work for the Blows for twelveyears. Later, the Blow family sold Dred Scott to JohnEmerson, an army doctor.
  14. 14. Dr. Emerson traveled with the army to free & slave http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/congestion/state_information/images/us_map.gifstates: Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Louisiana & Florida.
  15. 15. In 1836, Dr. Emerson was working at Fort Snelling inMinnesota.
  16. 16. Fort Snellinghttp://www.fhwa.dot.gov/congestion/state_information/images/us_map.gif is near St. Paul, Minnesota
  17. 17. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/congestion/state_information/images/us_map.gif Minnesota: a free state
  18. 18. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/congestion/state_information/images/us_map.gif Minnesota: a free state
  19. 19. At Fort Snelling, Dred Scott met a teen-aged slave,Harriet Robinson. Harriet‟s master permitted her tomarry Dred Scott. Dr. Emerson paid for Harriet so the married couplecould stay together. Harriet and Dred Scott, around 1858.
  20. 20. Dr. Emerson moved to Louisiana. There, Dr.Emerson married Irene Sanford.Dred Scott and Harriet stayed in Fort Snelling withouttheir master. They were “hired out.”
  21. 21. Dr. Emerson moved to Louisiana. There, Dr.Emerson married Irene Sanford.Dred Scott and Harriet stayed in Fort Snelling withouttheir master. They were “hired out.”
  22. 22. Hired out?What does that mean?
  23. 23. Slaves who were hired outworked for other bosses andearned money.
  24. 24. Slaves who were hired outworked for other bosses andearned money.
  25. 25. Slaves who were hired outworked for other bosses andearned money.
  26. 26. Lots of times, hired slaveskept the money.
  27. 27. Lots of times, hired slaveskept the money.
  28. 28. Other times, masters keptthe money.
  29. 29. Other times, masters keptthe money.
  30. 30. Around 1843, the Emersons and the Scotts returnedto St. Louis.
  31. 31. In St. Louis, Dred and Harriet Scott were hired outagain. They probably were able to keep some of theirmoney because they had their own house in St. Louis. But they were still slaves.
  32. 32. Dred and Harriet Scott had four children. Two sonsdied when they were babies. Their two daughters were Eliza and Lizzie.
  33. 33. In 1843, Dr. Emerson died unexpectedly. He wasonly 40 years old.Dred, Harriet, Eliza and Lizzy Scott became theproperty of Dr. Emerson‟s widow, Irene Emerson.
  34. 34. In 1846, Dred and Harriet Scott filed lawsuitsagainst Irene Emerson.
  35. 35. http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/images/8744-03.jpg They filed their lawsuits here in the Old Courthousebuilding of St. Louis.
  36. 36. Why did we sue our mistress?
  37. 37. We do not know why Dred and Harriet Scott sued forfreedom at this time. Here are possible reasons:1. Maybe they were tired of not keeping their hiring out money;2. Maybe Mrs. Emerson was planning to sell the Scotts;3. Maybe they offered to pay for their freedom but Mrs. Emerson refused.4. Maybe they wanted freedom for their daughters.
  38. 38. We lived many years in freestates. Why should we still liveas slaves?
  39. 39. http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/images/8744-03.jpg Courts in Missouri followed this law: “Once free,always free”.
  40. 40. We were not the first slaves tosue for freedom. About 300other slaves sued for freedomin Missouri.About half weresuccessful. We thought wewould win our case.
  41. 41. Local and State Courts Local CourtsThe Scotts sued at the local court level.
  42. 42. There were two trials. The Scotts lost the first trialin 1847.
  43. 43. There were two trials. The Scotts lost the first trialin 1847. In 1850, the court in the second trial decidedthe Scotts must be free.
  44. 44. There were two trials. The Scotts lost the first trialin 1847. In 1850, the court in the second trial decidedthe Scotts must be free.
  45. 45. There were two trials. The Scotts lost the first trialin 1847. In 1850, the court in the second trial decidedthe Scotts must be free. This court added that Mrs.Emerson owed the Scotts money she earned fromhiring them out.
  46. 46. Mrs. Emerson appealed to the Missouri StateSupreme Court.
  47. 47. Mrs. Emerson appealed* to the Missouri StateSupreme Court. *appeal = ask a higher court for a new trial
  48. 48. Local and State Courts State Supreme Courts State Courts of Appeal United States District Courts Local Courts
  49. 49. The Missouri State Supreme Court held a thirdtrial in 1852. The State Supreme Court decided theScotts must remain slaves.
  50. 50. The Missouri State Supreme Court held a thirdtrial in 1852. The State Supreme Court decided theScotts must remain slaves.
  51. 51. I am St. Louis lawyer Roswell Field. I spent six years working in the courts to free the Scott family.http://shs.umsystem.edu/famousmissourians/leaders/dscott/dscottroswell.html
  52. 52. In 1854, Irene Emerson moved east near her brother.She transferred her ownership of Dred Scott to herbrother, John Sanford from New York State. Because the case involved people from twodifferent states, it moved from Missouri State Courtto U.S. Federal Court.
  53. 53. Local and State Courts Federal Courts State Supreme Courts State United States Courts of Appeal Courts of Appeals United States District Courts Local CourtsThe case moved from the Missouri state courts to the Federal courts.
  54. 54. So, we sued our new owner, Mr. Sanford, in our fourth trial in Federal Court.
  55. 55. The Scotts lost their fourth trial. The Federal Courtdecided that the Scotts were not citizens, so they hadno right to sue for freedom.
  56. 56. The Scotts lost their fourth trial. The Federal Courtdecided that the Scotts were not citizens, so they hadno right to sue for freedom.
  57. 57. The Scotts lost their fourth trial. The Federal Courtdecided that the Scotts were not citizens, so they hadno right to sue for freedom.
  58. 58. We appealed that decision inour fifth trial in Federal Court.
  59. 59. Local and State Courts Federal Courts United States Supreme Court State Supreme Courts State United States Courts of Appeal Courts of Appeals United States District Courts Local Courts
  60. 60. Local and State Courts Federal Courts United States Supreme Court State Supreme Courts State United States Courts of Appeal Courts of Appeals United States District Courts Local Courts
  61. 61. I‟m Montgomery Blair. In 1856, I went to the Supreme Court in Washington, D.C., to argue the case for the Scotts.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Montgomery_Blair,_photo_three-quarters_length_seated.jpg
  62. 62. I had to use state laws and the U.S. Constitution to convince the nine Supreme Court Justices that my arguments are correct.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Montgomery_Blair,_photo_three-quarters_length_seated.jpg
  63. 63. Nine judges sit on the Supreme Court.The Judges are called „Justices.‟They are appointed by the President and approved by Congress.Supreme Court Justices‟ terms are for life.
  64. 64. TheChief Justice sits here.
  65. 65. This is where the Supreme Curt meets today. This building wascompleted in 1935.During the time of Dred Scott, the court met inside the U.S.Capitol building.
  66. 66. The U.S. Capitol in 1850.The U.S. Capitol building today.
  67. 67. Today‟s Supreme Courtroom. The Chief Justice sits here.
  68. 68. The interior of the Supreme Court in 1857. The Chief Justice sat here.
  69. 69. Seven of the Supreme Court Justices supported the rights of slave owners. 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
  70. 70. http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/scott.asp Roger B. Taney Credit: Missouri Historical Society I‟m Chief Justice Roger Taney.
  71. 71. http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/scott.asp Roger B. Taney Credit: Missouri Historical Society I was born in the southern state of Maryland. We were a slave-holding family. Our slaves worked on our large plantation.
  72. 72. http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/scott.asp Roger B. Taney Credit: Missouri Historical Society I had slaves, but I set them free. I believe slavery should be permitted. In my opinion, Congress has no right to change slavelaws.
  73. 73. In the Supreme Court, Iargued that “freedom basedon residence in a free statewas permanent.”
  74. 74. “A Negro of African descentcould be a citizen of theUnited States.”
  75. 75. On March 6, 1857, Dred and Harriet Scott finallyreceived a decision about their suit for freedom.
  76. 76. http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/scott.asp Roger B. Taney Credit: Missouri Historical Society…the enslaved African racewere not intended to beincluded, and formed no partof the people who framed andadopted the DeclarationofIndependence . . ."
  77. 77. http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/scott.asp Roger B. Taney Credit: Missouri Historical SocietyAfrican Americans, freeor slave, could not becitizens of any state, thatthey were "of an inferiororder, and altogether unfitto associate with thewhite race."
  78. 78. http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/scott.asp Roger B. Taney Credit: Missouri Historical SocietyChief Justice Taney ruledthat because of Scott‟srace, he was not a citizenof the United States. Scotthad no right to sue hismaster.
  79. 79. http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/africanamerican/scott/scott.asp Roger B. Taney Credit: Missouri Historical Society Justice Taney saidDred Scott was not freeeven if he lived in "freestates." He also said Congresshad no authority toprohibit slavery becausehe believed it was againstthe Fifth Amendment ofthe Constitution.
  80. 80. http://shs.umsystem.edu/famousmissourians/leaders/dscott/dscotttaney.htmlFifth Amendment: No person shall beheld to answer for a capital, or otherwiseinfamous crime, unless on a presentmentor indictment of a Grand Jury, except incases arising in the land or naval forces, orin the Militia, when in actual service intime of War or public danger; nor shall anyperson be subject for the same offense tobe twice put in jeopardy of life or limb;nor shall be compelled in any criminalcase to be a witness against himself, norbe deprived of life, liberty, or property,without due process of law; nor shallprivate property be taken for public use,without just compensation.
  81. 81. http://shs.umsystem.edu/famousmissourians/leaders/dscott/dscotttaney.htmlFifth Amendment: No person shallbedeprived of life, liberty, or property,without due process of law; nor shallprivate property be taken for publicuse, without just compensation.
  82. 82. The Supreme Court‟s decision: they were not free.
  83. 83. According to the Supreme Court, Dred, Harriet, Elizaand Lizzie Scott were to remain slaves.
  84. 84. Americans argued with each other about the decisionin Dred Scott‟s case. “Opposition to southern “A slaveholder’s instead opinion upon this subject of a freemen’s is now opposition to the constitution? Never!” Constitution!” (New York Evening Post) (Augusta Constitutionalist)
  85. 85. Justice Benjamin Curtis was so angry with Chief Justice Taney‟s opinion aboutDred Scott that he resigned from the Supreme Court. 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
  86. 86. Many American leaders hoped that the Dred Scottdecision would end the arguments about slavery. It did not.
  87. 87. The Dred Scott decision was an event that helped startthe four year Civil War between North and South.
  88. 88. Slavery ended in 1865, after Congress ratified the 13thAmendment to the United States Constitution:Neither slavery nor involuntaryservitude, except as a punishment forcrime whereof the party shall havebeen duly convicted, shall existwithin the United States
  89. 89. The Scott family did become free, but not becauseof a decision by the courts.Mrs. Emerson married again. Her new husbandwas an abolitionist.
  90. 90. The Scott family did become free, but not becauseof a decision by the courts.Mrs. Emerson married again. Her new husband,Dr. Calvin Chafee, was an abolitionist. He wasembarrassed to be involved in the Dred Scottdecision. He convinced his wife that the Scottfamily must be freed.
  91. 91. Peter Blow, the son of Dred Scott‟s first owner, wasan abolitionist. Three months after the SupremeCourt decision, Peter Blow paid money to theChaffees to free the Dred Scott and his family.
  92. 92. http://shs.umsystem.edu/famousmissourians/leaders/dscott/dscottobituary.htmlObituary for Dred Scott published in the St. Louis Evening News and Intelligencer, September 20, 1858
  93. 93. http://www.common-place.org/vol-08/no-03/arenson/The genealogist Jesuit, Father Edward Dowling, rediscovered Scotts gravesite atthe 100th anniversary of the Dred Scott case. "We have in mind putting up only asimple monument," he told the newspapers. "Then if someone some day wants toput up a better monument it will at least be known where Dred Scott lies." FatherDowling indicates Dred Scotts grave to John A. Madison, the Scotts great-grandson, and his family.St. Louis Globe-Democrat, February 10, 1957. Courtesy of the St. Louis Globe-Democrat Archives of the St. Louis Mercantile Library at theUniversity of Missouri-St. Louis.
  94. 94. http://news.wustl.edu/news/Pages/8967.aspxJohn A. Madison was Dred and Harriet Scott‟s great-grandson.He was graduated from law school and worked as a teacher.Lynn Jackson is Dred and Harriet Scott‟s great-great-granddaughter.She is the leader of the Dred Scott Foundation.
  95. 95. http://www.thedredscottfoundation.org/dshf/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id =105&Itemid=80The Dred Scott Foundation iscollecting money so this statuecan be built in the St. LouisCourthouse, where to rememberwhere Dred and Harriet Scottfiled their first lawsuit forfreedom.
  96. 96. http://www.thedredscottfoundation.org/dshf/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=58&Itemid=70
  97. 97. http://www.nps.gov/jeff/parknews/images/finallogo.jpg
  98. 98. http://www.common-place.org/vol-08/no-03/arenson/Young women of keen ability entering their childbearing years, Dred and Harriet Scottsdaughters Eliza and Lizzie would have commanded a high price in the slave market, trading as itdid in sexual violence and calculating reproduction as an investment factor.They could only return to St. Louis once their freedom was secured.Eliza and Lizzie Scott, Frank Leslies Illustrated Newspaper, June 27, 1857. Courtesy of the American Antiquarian Society.
  99. 99. http://www.lib.unc.edu/coursepages/hist/F08_hist376_001.html

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