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Respiration stage 2
 

Respiration stage 2

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  • 1. g. Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide. Mitochondria consist of a matrix where three-carbon fragments originating from carbohydrates are broken down (to CO2 and water) and of the cristae where ATP is produced. Cell respiration occurs in a series of reactions in which fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, mostly glucose, are broken down to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. Most of the energy from cell respiration is converted into ATP, a substance that powers most cell activities. 1. i.* Students know how chemiosmotic gradients in the mitochondria and chloroplast store energy for ATP production. Enzymes called ATP synthase, located within the thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts and cristae membranes in mitochondria, synthesize most ATP within cells. The thylakoid and cristae membranes are impermeable to protons except at pores that are coupled with the ATP synthase. The potential energy of the proton concentration gradient drives ATP synthesis as the protons move through the ATP synthase pores. The proton gradient is established by energy furnished by a flow of electrons passing through the electron transport system located within these membranes.
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Respiration stage 2 Respiration stage 2 Presentation Transcript

  • Cellular Respiration continued
    • Cellular Respiration is a metabolic process like burning fuel
      • Releases much of the energy in food to make ATP
      • This ATP provides cells with the energy they need to carry out the activities of life.
      • C 6 H 12 O 6 +O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP
  • Stage Two: Production of ATP
    • Krebs Cycle The Krebs cycle is a series of reactions that produce energy-storing molecules during aerobic respiration.
    • Electron Transport Chain During aerobic respiration, large amounts of ATP are made in an electron transport chain.
  • Krebs cycle history
    • Discovered by Hans Krebs in 1937
    • He received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1953 for his discovery
    • Forced to leave Germany prior to WWII because he was Jewish
  • Krebs Cycle (Citric acid cycle)
    • Completes the breakdown of glucose
      • Takes the pyruvate (3-carbons) and breaks it down, the carbon and oxygen atoms end up in CO 2 and H 2 O
      • Hydrogens and electrons are stripped and loaded onto NAD + and FAD (coenzymes) to produce NADH and FADH2
    • Production of only 2 more ATP but loads up the coenzymes with H + and electrons which move to the 3 rd stage
    • Occurs in the matrix inside the mitochondrion
  •  
  • Electron Transport chain
    • Before breaking down what happens during the electron transport chain, watch these two clips that describe the process.
    • Click here for ETC animation
    • Youtube video on ETC
  • Electron Transport Chain
    • Electron carriers (coenzymes) loaded with electrons (hydrogen atoms) and protons from the Krebs cycle move to this chain-like series of steps (staircase).
    • As electrons drop down stairs, energy released to form a total of 32 ATP
    • Oxygen waits at bottom of staircase, picks up electrons and protons and in doing so becomes water
  •  
  • Energy Tally
    • 36 ATP for aerobic vs. 2 ATP for anaerobic
      • Glycolysis 2 ATP
      • Kreb’s 2 ATP
      • Electron Transport 32 ATP
            • 36 ATP
    • Anaerobic organisms can’t be too energetic but are important for global recycling of carbon
  •  
    • Cellular respiration works opposite of photosynthesis
    • carried out by autotrophs.
    • The products of respiration are
    • used as the reactants for photosynthesis.