Respiration stage 1


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  • Respiration stage 1

    1. 1. How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration
    2. 2. O 2 CO 2 BREATHING Lungs CO 2 O 2 Bloodstream Muscle cells carrying out CELLULAR RESPIRATION Sugar + O 2  ATP + CO 2 + H 2 O Breathing and Cell Respiration are related Muscles get oxygen from breathing and sugar from food to produce energy during cellular respiration.
    3. 3. <ul><li>Is a series of reactions where fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, mostly glucose, are broken down to make CO 2 , water, and energy. </li></ul>Glucose Oxygen gas Carbon dioxide Water Energy
    4. 4. <ul><li>recall that reactions have two parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reactants (the ingredients needed for the reaction to happen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>products (the molecules produced by the reaction) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>they are separated by an arrow that points towards the products </li></ul>Glucose Oxygen gas Carbon dioxide Water Energy
    5. 5. Burning glucose in an experiment Energy released from glucose (as heat and light) 100% Energy released from glucose banked in ATP “ Burning” glucose in cellular respiration About 40% Gasoline energy converted to movement Burning gasoline in an auto engine 25% How efficient is cell respiration? energy released from glucose as heat and light = 100% if you burn glucose energy released from glucose stored in ATP = 40% burned during cellular respiration gas energy converted to movement 25% if burned in an auto engine
    6. 6. <ul><li>These reactions proceed the same way in plants and animals. Process is called cellular respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Overall Reaction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 -> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transformation of chemical energy in food into chemical energy cells can use: ATP </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>Most of the energy from cell respiration is converted into ATP </li></ul><ul><li>ATP is a substance that powers most cell activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Get energy by breaking the bond between the last 2 phosphates of ATP </li></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>An enzyme is needed to break the bond. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATPase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This makes ATP into ADP (triphosphate into diphosphate = took away one phosphate atom) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To remake ATP, another enzyme is used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATP synthetase </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Breakdown of glucose begins in the cytoplasm outside the mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>smaller molecules enter the liquid matrix inside the mitochondria for further breakdown. </li></ul><ul><li>locate the matrix in the next slide </li></ul>
    10. 12. <ul><li>The matrix where 3-carbon pieces, called pyruvate, (that came from carbohydrates) are broken down into CO 2 and water </li></ul><ul><li>The cristae is where ATP is made </li></ul>
    11. 13. <ul><li>Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Series of reactions which break the 6-carbon glucose molecule down into two 3-carbon molecules called pyruvate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process is an ancient one- all organisms from simple bacteria to humans perform it the same way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yields 2 ATP molecules for every one glucose molecule broken down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yields 2 NADH (enzyme) per glucose molecule </li></ul></ul>
    12. 14. Cellular Respiration Stage One: Breakdown of Glucose <ul><li>Glycolysis Glucose is broken down into pyruvate during glycolysis, making some ATP. </li></ul><ul><li>happens in the cytoplasm outside the mitochondrion. </li></ul><ul><li>pyruvate can go one of two ways: aerobic or anaerobic respiration </li></ul>
    13. 15. <ul><li>At this point, life diverges into two forms and two pathways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic cellular respiration (aka fermentation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic cellular respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We’ll look at anaerobic respiration first </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also called fermentation </li></ul></ul>
    14. 17. <ul><li>Some organisms thrive in environments with little or no oxygen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marshes, bogs, gut of animals, sewage treatment ponds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No oxygen used = ‘an’aerobic </li></ul><ul><li>Results in no more ATP , final steps in these pathways serve ONLY to regenerate NAD+ so it can return to pick up more electrons and hydrogens in glycolysis. </li></ul><ul><li>End products such as ethanol and CO 2 (single cell fungi (yeast) in beer/bread) or lactic acid (muscle cells) </li></ul>
    15. 18. Fermentation in the Absence of Oxygen <ul><li>Fermentation (aka anaerobic respiration) When oxygen is not present, fermentation (used in making alcohol) follows glycolysis, regenerating NAD + needed for glycolysis to continue. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic Acid Fermentation In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is converted to lactic acid which is what makes your muscles burn during exercise. </li></ul>
    16. 19. <ul><li>Oxygen required=aerobic </li></ul><ul><li>2 more sets of reactions which occur in a specialized structure within the cell called the mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Kreb’s Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Electron Transport Chain </li></ul></ul>