How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration
O 2 CO 2 BREATHING Lungs CO 2 O 2 Bloodstream Muscle cells carrying out CELLULAR RESPIRATION Sugar + O 2     ATP + CO 2  ...
<ul><li>Is a series of reactions where fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, mostly glucose, are broken down to make CO 2 , w...
<ul><li>recall that reactions have two parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reactants (the ingredients needed for the reaction to h...
<ul><li>These reactions proceed the same way in plants and animals.  Process is called  cellular respiration </li></ul><ul...
 
<ul><li>Most of the energy from cell respiration is converted into ATP </li></ul><ul><li>ATP is a substance that powers mo...
<ul><li>An enzyme is needed to break the bond. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATPase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This makes ATP into...
<ul><li>Breakdown of glucose begins in the cytoplasm outside the mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>smaller molecules enter th...
 
<ul><li>The  matrix  where  3-carbon pieces, called pyruvate,  (that came from carbohydrates) are broken down into CO 2  a...
Cellular Respiration Stage One: Breakdown of Glucose <ul><li>Glycolysis  Glucose is broken down into pyruvate during glyco...
<ul><li>At this point, life diverges into two forms and two pathways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic cellular respiration ...
 
<ul><li>Some organisms thrive in environments with little or no oxygen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marshes, bogs, gut of animals...
Fermentation in the Absence of Oxygen <ul><li>Fermentation (aka anaerobic respiration)  When oxygen is not present, fermen...
<ul><li>Oxygen required=aerobic </li></ul><ul><li>2 more sets of reactions which occur in a specialized structure within t...
Cellular Respiration Stage Two: Production of ATP <ul><li>Krebs Cycle  The Krebs cycle is a series of reactions that produ...
<ul><li>Completes the breakdown of glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes the pyruvate (3-carbons) and breaks it down, the ca...
 
<ul><li>Electron carriers loaded with electrons and protons from the Kreb’s cycle move to this chain-like series of steps ...
 
<ul><li>click here for ETC animation </li></ul>
<ul><li>36 ATP for aerobic vs. 2 ATP for anaerobic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis  2 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kreb...
 
<ul><li>Cellular Respiration is a metabolic process like burning fuel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Releases much of the energy in...
<ul><li>Cellular respiration works opposite of the photosynthesis  </li></ul><ul><li>carried out by autotrophs.  </li></ul...
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Cellular respiration

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  • 1. g. Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide. Mitochondria consist of a matrix where three-carbon fragments originating from carbohydrates are broken down (to CO2 and water) and of the cristae where ATP is produced. Cell respiration occurs in a series of reactions in which fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, mostly glucose, are broken down to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. Most of the energy from cell respiration is converted into ATP, a substance that powers most cell activities. 1. i.* Students know how chemiosmotic gradients in the mitochondria and chloroplast store energy for ATP production. Enzymes called ATP synthase, located within the thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts and cristae membranes in mitochondria, synthesize most ATP within cells. The thylakoid and cristae membranes are impermeable to protons except at pores that are coupled with the ATP synthase. The potential energy of the proton concentration gradient drives ATP synthesis as the protons move through the ATP synthase pores. The proton gradient is established by energy furnished by a flow of electrons passing through the electron transport system located within these membranes.
  • Cellular respiration

    1. 1. How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration
    2. 2. O 2 CO 2 BREATHING Lungs CO 2 O 2 Bloodstream Muscle cells carrying out CELLULAR RESPIRATION Sugar + O 2  ATP + CO 2 + H 2 O Breathing and Cell Respiration are related Muscles get oxygen from breathing and sugar from food to produce energy during cellular respiration.
    3. 3. <ul><li>Is a series of reactions where fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, mostly glucose, are broken down to make CO 2 , water, and energy. </li></ul>Glucose Oxygen gas Carbon dioxide Water Energy
    4. 4. <ul><li>recall that reactions have two parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reactants (the ingredients needed for the reaction to happen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>products (the molecules produced by the reaction) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>they are separated by an arrow that points towards the products </li></ul>Glucose Oxygen gas Carbon dioxide Water Energy
    5. 5. <ul><li>These reactions proceed the same way in plants and animals. Process is called cellular respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Overall Reaction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 -> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transformation of chemical energy in food into chemical energy cells can use: ATP </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Most of the energy from cell respiration is converted into ATP </li></ul><ul><li>ATP is a substance that powers most cell activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Get energy by breaking the bond between the last 2 phosphates of ATP </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>An enzyme is needed to break the bond. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATPase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This makes ATP into ADP (triphosphate into diphosphate = took away one phosphate atom) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To remake ATP, another enzyme is used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATP synthetase </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>Breakdown of glucose begins in the cytoplasm outside the mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>smaller molecules enter the liquid matrix inside the mitochondria for further breakdown. </li></ul><ul><li>locate the matrix in the next slide </li></ul>
    9. 11. <ul><li>The matrix where 3-carbon pieces, called pyruvate, (that came from carbohydrates) are broken down into CO 2 and water </li></ul><ul><li>The cristae is where ATP is made </li></ul>
    10. 12. Cellular Respiration Stage One: Breakdown of Glucose <ul><li>Glycolysis Glucose is broken down into pyruvate during glycolysis, making some ATP. </li></ul><ul><li>happens in the cytoplasm outside the mitochondrion. </li></ul><ul><li>pyruvate can go one of two ways: aerobic or anaerobic respiration </li></ul>
    11. 13. <ul><li>At this point, life diverges into two forms and two pathways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic cellular respiration (aka fermentation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic cellular respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We’ll look at anaerobic respiration first </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also called fermentation </li></ul></ul>
    12. 15. <ul><li>Some organisms thrive in environments with little or no oxygen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marshes, bogs, gut of animals, sewage treatment ponds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No oxygen used = ‘an’aerobic </li></ul><ul><li>Results in no more ATP , final steps in these pathways serve ONLY to regenerate NAD+ so it can return to pick up more electrons and hydrogens in glycolysis. </li></ul><ul><li>End products such as ethanol and CO 2 (single cell fungi (yeast) in beer/bread) or lactic acid (muscle cells) </li></ul>
    13. 16. Fermentation in the Absence of Oxygen <ul><li>Fermentation (aka anaerobic respiration) When oxygen is not present, fermentation follows glycolysis, regenerating </li></ul><ul><li>NAD + needed for glycolysis to continue. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic Acid Fermentation In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is converted to lactate which is what makes your muscles burn during exercise. </li></ul>
    14. 17. <ul><li>Oxygen required=aerobic </li></ul><ul><li>2 more sets of reactions which occur in a specialized structure within the cell called the mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Kreb’s Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Electron Transport Chain </li></ul></ul>
    15. 18. Cellular Respiration Stage Two: Production of ATP <ul><li>Krebs Cycle The Krebs cycle is a series of reactions that produce energy-storing molecules during aerobic respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Transport Chain During aerobic respiration, large amounts of ATP are made in an electron transport chain. </li></ul>
    16. 19. <ul><li>Completes the breakdown of glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes the pyruvate (3-carbons) and breaks it down, the carbon and oxygen atoms end up in CO 2 and H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogens and electrons are stripped and loaded onto NAD + and FAD (coenzymes) to produce NADH and FADH2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Production of only 2 more ATP but loads up the coenzymes with H + and electrons which move to the 3 rd stage </li></ul>
    17. 21. <ul><li>Electron carriers loaded with electrons and protons from the Kreb’s cycle move to this chain-like series of steps (staircase). </li></ul><ul><li>As electrons drop down stairs, energy released to form a total of 32 ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen waits at bottom of staircase, picks up electrons and protons and in doing so becomes water </li></ul>
    18. 23. <ul><li>click here for ETC animation </li></ul>
    19. 24. <ul><li>36 ATP for aerobic vs. 2 ATP for anaerobic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis 2 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kreb’s 2 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron Transport 32 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>36 ATP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic organisms can’t be too energetic but are important for global recycling of carbon </li></ul>
    20. 26. <ul><li>Cellular Respiration is a metabolic process like burning fuel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Releases much of the energy in food to make ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This ATP provides cells with the energy they need to carry out the activities of life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 +O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP </li></ul></ul>
    21. 27. <ul><li>Cellular respiration works opposite of the photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>carried out by autotrophs. </li></ul><ul><li>The products of respiration are </li></ul><ul><li>used as the reactants for photosynthesis. </li></ul>
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