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Cells and the cell theory

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    Cells and the cell theory Cells and the cell theory Presentation Transcript

      • Objectives
        • List scientists who contributed to the cell theory
        • List the components of the cell theory
        • Compare prokaryote and eukaryote cells
        • Label a plant and an animal cell
        • Know the functions of cell organelles
    • Early Contributions
        • Robert Hooke - First person to see cells, he was looking at cork and noted that he saw "a great many boxes. (1665)
        • Anton van Leeuwenhoek - Observed living cells in pond water, which he called "animalcules" (1673)
        • Theodore Schwann - zoologist who observed tissues of animals had cells (1839)
        • Mattias Schleiden - botanist, observed tissues of plants contained cells ( 1845)
        • Rudolf Virchow - also reported that every living thing is made of up vital units, known as cells. He predicted that cells come from other cells . (1850 )
    • The Cell Theory
        • 1. Every living organism is made of one or more cells.
        • 2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function.
        • 3. It is the smallest unit that can perform life functions.
        • 4. All cells arise from pre-existing cells.
      *Why is the Cell Theory called a Theory and not a Fact?
    • Cell Features
      • ALL cells have these parts
        • Ribosomes – make protein for use by the organism
        • Cytoplasm – fluid material within  cell
        • DNA – genetic material
        • Cytoskeleton – internal framework of cell
        • Cell Membrane – outer boundary, some things can cross the cell membrane
    • Comprehension Checkpoint
      • Answer true or false
        • Robert Hooke was the first person to see cells.
        • Bacteria cells have a cell membrane.
        • The Cell Theory was developed by a single scientist.
        • Plant cells have cytoplasm.
        • Cells taken from fungi do not have DNA.
        • Cells can only come from pre-existing cells.
    • Prokaryote Cells
        • The first cells to inhabit the earth
        • Simple cells
        • Bacteria
        • These cells do NOT have a nucleus, their DNA is circular and floats in the cytoplasm
      Some bacteria have a tail-like structure called a flagella, that helps it to move. A capsule surrounds some bacteria and helps them avoid the body’s immune system
    • Bacteria-prokaryotic Bacteria that causes Anthrax
    • Eukaryotic Cells
        • Cells found in plants, animals, protists, and fungi
      •  
        • The cell is composed of 4 main parts:
          • Cell membrane
          • Cytoplasm
          • Nucleus – “control center” of cell, houses DNA
          • Organelles – small structures that carry out specific functions (“little organs”)
    • Nucleus
        • Usually found at center of cell
        • Has a nuclear membrane & nuclear pores
        •   Contains cell’s DNA in one of 2 forms
          • chromatin - DNA bound to protein (non-dividing cell)
          • chromosomes - condensed structures seen in a dividing cell (look like Xs)
        •   Also contains an organelle called  nucleolus -  which makes the cell’s ribosomes
    • Cell Organelles Mitochondria – this is the cell’s energy center. It turns food into a chemical energy called ATP. The mitochondria is sometimes called the “powerhouse” of the cell.
    • Cell Organelles Golgi Apparatus – processes, packages and secretes proteins. It is comparable to a factory or a post office. *A vesicle is used with the Golgi to transport substances outside cell, like a messenger delivering a package.  
    • Cell Organelles Lysosome – Contains digestive enzymes, breaks things down, "suicide sac” Endoplasmic Reticulum – Transport, "intracellular highway".   - Rough ER contains many ribosomes & is involved in protein synthesis   - Smooth ER ribosomes not found on surface
    • Cell Organelles Cytoskeleton – Helps cell maintain support & shape; movement a.  microtubules -hollow structures; also help build cilia  flagella b.  microfilaments -threadlike c.  centrioles -only in animal cells; used during cell division (paired)  Vacuole – storage area for water and other substaces, plant cells usually have a large central vacuole
    • Protein Production
      • The cell is like a factory. Its product is protein which goes to body to serve different functions.
        • DNA has instructions to build protein
        • These instructions are sent to ribosomes
        • The ribosomes build protein and send it through ER
        • The proteins are delivered to golgi where they are completed and “tagged” for export outside cell
    • THE ANIMAL CELL
    • Cheek Cells Seen Through Microscope
    • Plant Cells
        • Have additional structures
        • CELL WALL – surrounds membrane & provides additional support
        • CHLOROPLASTS – contain green pigment, function in photosynthesis
        • CENTRAL VACUOLE – large water container in center of cell
    • PLANT CELL Can you identify the parts?
    • Anacharis Cells Viewed With a Microscope
    • Organelles With DNA
        • Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA (separate from the nucleus)
        • This supports the ENDOSYMBIOSIS THEORY which states that eukaryotic cells evolved when prokaryote cells engulfed or absorbed other cells.
    • CELL MEMBRANE
        • Selectively permeable; it regulates what comes into the cell and what leaves the cell
        • It is composed of a double layer of phospholipids with proteins embedded throughout