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Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ
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Ch 4 l 3 how atoms differ

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  • All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons.
  • How many elements are in the first row of the period table? (Answer: 2) How many elements are in the second and third rows? (Answer: 8).
  • This image is from your text (which means the answers are also in your text). The LIGHT BLUE tiles represent elements classified as METALS. The tiles that are YELLOW are called NONMETALS and the tiles that are between the METALS and NONMENTALS are the SEMIMETALS which are LIGHT GREEN. Go ahead and shade and label your model in your notes. Be colorful!
  • The number after the element name is the atomic mass (rounded to the nearest whole number). Remember, electron mass is so tiny that we don’t count it when determining the mass of an atom.
  • Radioactive tracers examples are iodine-131, gadolinium-153 (atomic number 64), and technetium-99. Cobalt-60 is used to treat cancer.
  • Hydrogen (pure, no isotope) is some times called protium because it only has one proton and no neutron. Protium, deuterium and tritium are the only isotopes of any element that have special names. Scientists use deuterium to study chemical reactions.
  • Calcium looses 2 electrons to become a positive ion with a charge of plus 2.
  • Calcium looses 2 electrons to become a positive ion with a charge of plus 2.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 4: Understanding the Atom Lesson 3: Elements, Isotopes and Ions – How Atoms Differ Ms. Dewey-Hoffman, 2011
    • 2. QTT: 4-6 Sentences!!! <ul><li>How do elements differ? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think isotopes are? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think ions are? </li></ul><ul><li>How can atoms interact? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it easy or hard to make elements interact? </li></ul>SCAN
    • 3. Vocabulary <ul><li>Periodic Table: Chart that lists elements by atomic number and by electron arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Average Atomic Mass: Total mass of an atom </li></ul><ul><li>Element: Pure substance made from atoms that all have the same number of protons </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Number: Number of protons in an atom of an element </li></ul><ul><li>Ion: Atom that has gained or lost electrons and is no longer neutral </li></ul>
    • 4. Vocabulary <ul><li>Mass Number: Sum of the number of protons and neutrons that an atom has </li></ul><ul><li>Isotopes: Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast: To show differences when compared </li></ul>
    • 5. Different Elements – Different Number of Protons <ul><li>An ELEMENT is a pure substance made from atoms that all have the same number of protons. </li></ul><ul><li>All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of protons in the atom of an element is the element’s ATOMIC NUMBER. </li></ul><ul><li>PROTONS ARE THE ONE CONSTANT THING IN THE ATOM. This is why we organize elements by their proton number. </li></ul>All Aluminum atoms have 13 protons. Therefore, all atoms with 13 protons are Aluminum atoms. Aluminum’s atomic number is 13.
    • 6. Finding the Atomic Number on the Periodic Table for Each Element <ul><li>Find the element. </li></ul><ul><li>Look near the top of it’s box. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the WHOLE number. </li></ul>Found on page 195 A Periodic Table is a chart that lists elements by atomic number and by electron arrangement.
    • 7. The Periodic Table: Other Information <ul><li>Elements in the periodic table are arranged horizontally in order of increasing atomic numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>The elements are also arranged vertically in groups with similar chemical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Most tables provide each element’s name, atomic number, symbol and atomic mass (in AMU). </li></ul>Name Symbol Atomic Mass Atomic Number
    • 8. The Periodic Table Found on Page 196 METALLOID = SEMIMETAL
    • 9. <ul><li>Atoms of the same element always have the same number of protons. </li></ul><ul><li>HOWEVER, atoms of the same element sometimes have different numbers of neutrons.  ISOTOPES </li></ul><ul><li>ATOMIC NUMBER = Number of Protons </li></ul><ul><li>An atom’s MASS NUMBER is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons the atom has. </li></ul>Isotopes-Different Numbers of Neutrons How to Determine an Atom’s Number of Neutrons # of Neutrons = Mass Number – Atomic Number
    • 10. Isotopes of Neon (Just the Nucleuses) 10 Neutrons 10 Protons 12 Neutrons 10 Protons Net Charge of Atom is Still Neutral Pages 197-198 Contrast = To Show Differences When Compared
    • 11. Isotopes <ul><li>Atoms of the same element that contain different number numbers of neutrons are called ISOTOPES. </li></ul><ul><li>Because most elements have more than one isotope, each element has an AVERAGE ATOMIC MASS. </li></ul><ul><li>The AVERAGE ATOMIC MASS of an element is the weight average mass of the mixture of an element’s isotope. </li></ul>
    • 12.  
    • 13. Isotopes and Radioactivity <ul><li>Radioactive isotopes have unstable nuclei that break down and release particles, radiation, and energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Its not good for you, but it is useful. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon-14 is useful for dating bones, wood and charcoal up to 50,000 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Uranium-238 is used by geologists to determine the age of rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Californium-252 is used to inspect airline luggage for hidden explosives and weapons. </li></ul>More on page 199 of your textbook.
    • 14. Isotopes of Hydrogen Regular Hydrogen
    • 15. Positive Ions – Losing Electrons <ul><li>When an atom loses an electron, it has more protons than electrons  positive charge. </li></ul><ul><li>An atom that has a positive net charge is called a POSITIVE ION. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive ions are represented with the element symbol and a super script: H + , Ca 2+ </li></ul><ul><li>Elements on left  Give up electrons. </li></ul>Positive
    • 16. Negative Ions – Gaining Electrons <ul><li>When an atom gains an electron, it has more electrons than protons  negative charge. </li></ul><ul><li>An atom that has a negative net charge is called a NEGATIVE ION. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative ions are represented with the element symbol and a super script: Fl - ,O 2- </li></ul><ul><li>Elements on right  Take electrons. </li></ul>Negative
    • 17. Opposites Attract! <ul><li>Positive and Negative Ions attract each other because of their opposite charges. </li></ul><ul><li>This is how COMPOUNDS are formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Sodium Chloride (table salt). </li></ul>
    • 18. In Class Assignment Enrichment & Reinforcement. Homework Page 202: 1-8 all.
    • 19. Mini Quiz <ul><li>Clear your desks (all you need is a pencil or a pen). </li></ul><ul><li>For the element ____________, which has an atomic number of _______ and an atomic mass of ___________. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw an atom of this element that has NO NET CHARGE. With the correct number of protons and neutrons on the nucleus area and electrons at the correct energy levels. </li></ul><ul><li>On the back, draw the same element as an ion with a charge of ______ one. </li></ul><ul><li>Use + to represent protons, - for electrons and 0 for neutrons. </li></ul>

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