• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Balancing and reaction types
 

Balancing and reaction types

on

  • 3,747 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,747
Views on SlideShare
3,747
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
262
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Balancing and reaction types Balancing and reaction types Presentation Transcript

    • Chemical Reactions
    • All chemical reactions…
      • have two parts:
        • Reactants = the substances you start with
        • Products = the substances you end up with
      • The reactants will turn into the products.
      • Reactants -> Products
    • Reactants Products
    • How to Describe a Reaction
      • A reaction can be described several ways:
      • #1. In a sentence every item is a word
        • Copper reacts with chlorine to form copper (II) chloride.
      • #2. In a word equation some symbols used
        • Copper + chlorine -> copper (II) chloride
      • #3. In a chemical equation only chemical equations are used
        • Cu + Cl 2 -> CuCl 2
    • Symbols in Equations
      • (s) after the formula = solid: Fe (s)
      • (g) after the formula = gas: CO 2(g)
      • (l) after the formula = liquid: H 2 O (l)
      • (aq) after the formula = dissolved in water, an aqueous solution: NaCl (aq) is a salt water solution
    • Symbols used in equations
      • the arrow -> separates the reactants from the products (arrow points to products)
        • Read as: “reacts to form” or yields
      • The plus sign + means “and”
      • ↑ used after a product indicates a gas has been produced : H 2 ↑
      • ↓ used after a product indicates a solid has been produced : PbI 2 ↓
    • Symbols used in equations
      • double arrow indicates a reversible reaction (more later)
      • shows that heat is supplied to the reaction
      • is used to indicate a catalyst is supplied (in this case, platinum is the catalyst)
    • What is a catalyst?
      • A substance that speeds up a reaction, without being changed or used up by the reaction.
      • Enzymes are biological or protein catalysts in your body.
    • The Skeleton Equation
      • All chemical equations are a description of the reaction.
      • A skeleton equation uses formulas and symbols to describe a reaction
        • but doesn’t indicate how many; this means they are NOT balanced
    • Write a skeleton equation for:
      • Solid iron (III) sulfide reacts with gaseous hydrogen chloride to form iron (III) chloride and hydrogen sulfide gas.
      • Nitric acid dissolved in water reacts with solid sodium carbonate to form liquid water and carbon dioxide gas and sodium nitrate dissolved in water.
    • Write a skeleton equation for:
      • Solid iron (III) sulfide reacts with gaseous hydrogen chloride to form iron (III) chloride and hydrogen sulfide gas.
      • FeS (s) + HCl (g) -> FeCl 2(s) + H 2 S (g)
      • Nitric acid dissolved in water reacts with solid sodium carbonate to form liquid water and carbon dioxide gas and sodium nitrate dissolved in water.
      • HNO 3 (aq) + Na 2 CO 3(g) -> CO 2(g) + H 2 O (l)
    • Now, read these equations:
      • Fe (s) + O 2(g) -> Fe 2 O 3(s)
      • Cu (s) + AgNO 3(aq) -> Ag (s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2(aq)
      • NO 2(g) N 2(g) + O 2(g)
    • Balanced Chemical Equations
      • According to the Law of Conservation of Mass: atoms aren’t created or destroyed in a chemical reaction , they are just rearranged.
      • All the atoms we start with in the reactants we must end up with in the products (meaning: balanced!)
      • A balanced equation has the same number of each element on both sides of the equation.
    • Rules for balancing:
      • Assemble the correct formulas for all the reactants and products, using “+” and “ ->”
      • Count the number of atoms of each type appearing on both sides
      • Balance the elements one at a time by adding coefficients (the numbers in front) where you need more - save balancing the H and O until LAST!
      • (hint: I prefer to save O until the very last)
      • Double-Check to make sure it is balanced.
      • Never change a subscript to balance an equation (You can only change coefficients )
        • If you change the subscript (formula) you are describing a different chemical.
        • H 2 O is a different compound than H 2 O 2
      • Never put a coefficient in the middle of a formula; they must go only in the front
        • 2 NaCl is okay, but Na 2 Cl is not.
      Never
    • Practice Balancing Examples
      • _AgNO 3 + _Cu -> _Cu(NO 3 ) 2 + _Ag
      • _Mg + _N 2 -> _Mg 3 N 2
      • _P + _O 2 -> _P 4 O 10
      • _Na + _H 2 O -> _H 2 + _NaOH
      • _CH 4 + _O 2 -> _CO 2 + _H 2 O
    • Practice Balancing Examples
      • 2 AgNO 3 + _Cu -> _Cu(NO 3 ) 2 + 2 Ag
      • 3 Mg + _N 2 -> _Mg 3 N 2
      • 4 P + 5 O 2 -> _P 4 O 10
      • 2 Na + 2 H 2 O -> _H 2 + 2 NaOH
      • _CH 4 + 2 O 2 _CO 2 + 2 H 2 O
    • Types of Reactions
      • There are probably millions of reactions.
      • We can’t remember them all, but luckily they will fall into several categories.
      • We will learn: a) the 5 major types .
      • We will be able to: b) predict the products .
      • For some, we will be able to: c) predict whether or not they will happen at all .
      • How? We recognize them by their reactants
    • Synthesis Reaction A B + The general equation is A + B  AB also called Combination Reactions 2 substances combine to make one compound A B A
    • #1 Synthesis Reactions
      • also called Combination Reactions
      • 2 substances combine to make one compound
      • the general equation is : A + B -> AB
        • Ca + O 2 -> Ca O element + element
        • S O 2 + O 2 -> S O 3 compound + element
        • CO 2 + H 2 O -> H 2 C O 3 compound + compound
      • We can predict the products, especially if the reactants are two elements .
      • Mg + N 2 -> _______
      Mg 3 N 2
    • Synthesis Reaction HCl (g) + NH 3(g)  NH 4 Cl (s)
    • Complete and balance:
      • Ca + Cl 2 ->
      • Fe + O 2 -> (assume iron (II) oxide is the product)
      • Al + O 2 ->
      • Remember that the first step is to write the correct formulas – you can still change the subscripts at this point, but not later while balancing!
      • Then balance by changing the coefficients only
    • The general equation is : AB -> A + B A reaction where a more complex molecule breaks down to form two or more simpler products Decomposition Reaction A B + A B A
    • 2NH 4 NO 3(s)  4H 2 O (g) + 2N 2(g) + O 2(g) + energy Decomposition Reaction Timothy McVeigh bombing, 1995 Regular building demolition with ammonium nitrate explosives
    • #2 - Decomposition Reactions
      • one reactant breaks apart into two or more elements or compounds.
      • the general equation is : AB -> A + B
      • H 2 O H 2 + O 2
      • CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2
      • CuSO 4 •5H 2 O CuSO 4 + 5H 2 O
      • 2NaHCO 3(s) Na 2 CO 3(s) + H 2 O (l) + CO 2(g)
      • Note that energy (heat, sunlight, electricity, etc.) is usually required
    • #2 - Decomposition Reactions
      • We can predict the products if it is a binary compound (which means it is made up of only two elements)
        • It breaks apart into the elements:
      • H 2 O
      • HgO
      mercury (II) oxide cinnabar mercury
    • Single Displacement Reaction
      • A reaction where an element displaces another element in a compound, producing a new compound and an element
      • A metal will replace a cation (metal or H)
      • A non-metal will replace an anion (non-metal)
      A + BC  AC + B A + B C B + B A C A
      • Zn (s) + 2 HCl (aq) -> ZnCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g)
      • zinc metal and hydrochloric acid react to form zinc chloride and hydrogen gas in this single-displacement reaction.
    • #3 - Single Displacement Reactions
      • One element replaces another
      • the reaction follows the form of: compound + element -> compound + element
      • Reactants must be an element and a compound.
      • Products will be a different element and a different compound.
      • Na + KCl -> K + NaCl (cations switched)
      • F 2 + LiCl -> LiF + Cl 2 (anions switched)
    • #3 Single Displacement Reactions
      • Metals will replace other metals (and they can also replace hydrogen)
      • Zn (s) + 2 HCl (aq) -> ZnCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g)
      • Cu (s) + 2AgNO 3 -> 2Ag (s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2
      • Think of water as: HOH
        • Metals replace the first H, and then combines with the hydroxide (OH).
      • 2Na (s) + 2H 2 O (l) -> 2 NaOH (aq) + H 2(g)
                                                                         
    • #3 Single Displacement Reactions
      • We can even tell whether or not a single displacement reaction will happen:
        • More ‘active’ element replaces less active
      • The Activity Series of Metals lists metals (and hydrogen) in order of activity.
      • Elements higher on the list replaces those lower on the list.
    • The “Activity Series” of Metals
      • Lithium
      • Potassium
      • Calcium
      • Sodium
      • Magnesium
      • Aluminum
      • Zinc
      • Chromium
      • Iron
      • Nickel
      • Lead
      • Hydrogen
      • Bismuth
      • Copper
      • Mercury
      • Silver
      • Platinum
      • Gold
      • Metals can replace other metals, provided they are above the metal they are trying to replace (for example, zinc will replace lead)
      • Metals above hydrogen can replace hydrogen in acids.
      • Metals from sodium upward can replace hydrogen in water.
      Higher activity Lower activity
    • Single Displacement Reaction Hg(NO 3 ) 2(aq) + 2Ag (s)  Hg (s) + 2AgNO 3(aq) Will this reaction occur? Both of these reactions do not occur. H 2(g) + ZnCl 2(aq)  2HCl (aq) + Zn (s) What about this reaction?
    • The “Activity Series” of Halogens Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine Halogens can replace other halogens in compounds, provided they are above the halogen they are trying to replace in the periodic table. 2NaCl (s) + F 2(g)  2NaF (s) + Cl 2(g) MgCl 2(s) + Br 2(g)  ??? No Reaction! ??? Higher Activity Lower Activity
    • #3 Single Replacement Reactions Practice:
      • Fe + CuSO 4 ->
      • Pb + KCl -> 
      • Al + HCl ->
    • Double Displacement Reaction AD + BC  AC + BD Two compounds switch parts to make two new compounds the general equation is : AB + CD -> AD + CB + B C B + A C A A D A B D B
    • Double Displacement Reaction sodium chloride and silver fluoride react to form sodium fluoride and silver chloride in this double displacement reaction
    • #4 - Double Replacement Reactions
      • Two compounds switch parts to make two new compounds
      • the reaction is:
        • compound + compound -> compound + compound
      • NaOH + FeCl 3 ->
        • The positive ions change place.
      • NaOH + FeCl 3 -> ->  Fe +3 OH - + Na +1 Cl -1
      • = NaOH + FeCl 3 -> ->  Fe (OH) 3 + Na Cl
    • Double Displacement Reaction Pb(NO 3 ) 2(aq) + 2KI (aq)  PbI 2(s) + 2KNO 3(aq)
    • #4 - Double Replacement Reactions
      • Have certain “ driving forces ” , or reasons
        • Will only happen if one of the products:
        • a) doesn’t dissolve in water and forms a solid (a “ precipitate ”), or
        • b) is a gas that bubbles out, or
        • c) is a molecular compound (which will usually be water).
    • Complete and balance:
      • assume all of the following reactions actually take place:
        • CaCl 2 + NaOH ->
      • CuCl 2 + K 2 S ->
      • KOH + Fe(NO 3 ) 3 ->
      • (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 + BaF 2 ->
      • NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) -> H 2 O (l) + NaCl (aq)
    • How to recognize which type?
      • Look at the reactants :
        • E + E OR C + C = Synthesis
        • C = Decomposition
        • E + C = Single displacement
        • C + C = Double displacement
    • Practice Examples:
      • H 2 + O 2 -> ->
      • H 2 O -> ->
      • Zn + H 2 SO 4 -> ->
      • HgO -> ->
      • KBr + Cl 2 -> ->
      • AgNO 3 + NaCl -> ->
      • Mg(OH) 2 + H 2 SO 3 -> ->
    • Combustion Reaction fuel O 2 + A reaction of a fuel with oxygen, releasing energy in the form of heat and/or light X y O z + energy
    • Combustion Reaction
    • Combustion Reaction Element + O 2  “oxide” + energy 2Mg (s) + O 2(g)  2MgO (s) + energy P 4(s) + 5O 2(g)  P 4 O 10(g) + energy
    • #5 – Combustion Reactions
      • Combustion is a fast reaction of a substance with oxygen to make compounds called oxides .
      • the general equation is :
        • fuel + oxygen -> oxides + energy
      • the three things that must be present for combustion to happen are:
        • fuel
        • oxygen
        • spark / heat
    • Combustion Reaction Examples:
      • What is the main purpose for which fuels are burned around the world?
      • The following equations show what happens when different carbon-based fuels are burned.
      • C (s) + O 2(g) -> CO 2(g) + energy
      • CH 4(g) + 2O 2(g) -> CO 2(g) + 2H 2 O + energy
      • ethanol CH 3 CH 2 OH (l) + O 2(g) -> CO 2(g) + 3H 2 O (l)
      • C 6 H 12 O 6(s) + 6O 2(g) -> 6CO 2(g) + 6H 2 O (g) + energy
    • Combustion of other Fuels
      • Some fuels do not contain carbon.
      • The products are oxides of each element in the fuels.
      • Mg (s) + O 2(g) -> MgO (s)
      • Cu (s) + O 2(g) -> CuO (s)
      • H 2(g) + O 2(g) -> H 2 O (l)
      • P 4(s) + 5O 2(g) -> P 4 O 10(g)
      • S (s) + O 2(g) -> SO 2(g)
      • As you see, many combustion reactions may also be classified as synthesis.
    • Incomplete Combustion If there is not enough oxygen, then incomplete combustion occurs producing poisonous carbon monoxide gas (which is invisible and has no odor, colour or taste). It is especially dangerous when produced indoors, by damaged furnaces or the burning of fuels indoors. Hydrocarbon + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + carbon monoxide + carbon + energy Ex. C 4 H 10(g) + 5O 2(g)  2CO 2(g) + 5H 2 O (g) + CO (g) + C (s) + energy POISONOUS!!! BLACK!!!
    • SUMMARY: An equation...
      • Describes a reaction
      • Must be balanced in order to follow the Law of Conservation of Mass
      • Can only be balanced by changing the coefficients.
      • Has special symbols to indicate the physical state, if a catalyst or energy is required, etc.
    • Reactions
      • Come in 5 major types.
      • We can tell what type they are by looking at the reactants.
      • Single Replacement happens based on the Activity Series
      • Double Replacement happens if one product is: 1) a precipitate (an insoluble solid), 2) water (a molecular compound) , or 3) a gas.
    • Net Ionic Equations
      • Many reactions occur in water- that is, in aqueous solution
      • When dissolved in water, many ionic compounds “dissociate”, or separate, into cations and anions
      • Now we are ready to write an ionic equation
    • Net Ionic Equations
      • Example (needs to be a double replacement reaction)
        • AgNO 3 + NaCl  AgCl + NaNO 3
        • 1. this is the full balanced equation
        • 2. next, write it as an ionic equation by splitting the compounds into their ions:
        • Ag 1+ + NO 3 1- + Na 1+ + Cl 1- 
        • AgCl + Na 1+ + NO 3 1-
        • Note that the AgCl did not ionize, because it is a “precipitate”
    • Net Ionic Equations
      • 3. simplify by crossing out ions not directly involved (called spectator ions)
      • Ag 1+ + Cl 1-  AgCl
      • This is called the net ionic equation
      • Let’s talk about precipitates before we do some other examples
    • Predicting the Precipitate
      • Insoluble salt = a precipitate [note Figure 11.11, p.342 (AgCl)]
      • General solubility rules are found:
        • Table 11.3, p. 344 in textbook
        • Reference section - page R54 (back of textbook)
        • Lab manual Table A.3, page 332
        • Your periodic table handout
    • End of Chapter 11 Let’s do some examples together of net ionic equations, starting with these reactants: BaCl 2 + AgNO 3 -> NaCl + Ba(NO 3 ) 2 ->