Prokaryote Classification

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Prokaryote Classification

  1. 1. Prokaryote Classification
  2. 2. Domains Bacteria and Archaea <ul><li>Classified by Shape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cocci </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacilli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spirilla </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Domains Bacteria and Archaea <ul><li>Classified by Shape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vibrio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spirochete </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Domains Bacteria and Archaea <ul><li>Classified by Configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clusters </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Domains Bacteria and Archaea <ul><li>Gram Stain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still used in laboratories as a “first step” in diagnostics </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Domains Bacteria and Archaea <ul><li>Gram negative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to be more pathogenic (disease causing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a thinner cell wall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gram positive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a thicker cell wall </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Reproduction of Prokaryotes <ul><li>Binary fission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The DNA replicates and attaches to cell membrane. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cell grows. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The DNA copies separate, cell grows larger. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cell splits into two daughter cells. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Reproduction of Prokaryotes <ul><li>Endospores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A thick, protective membrane formed when conditions are bad. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can survive boiling, freezing, drought, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will grow when conditions are favorable. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Prokaryotes in the Ecosystem <ul><li>Nitrogen Fixation </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling Nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning up Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Production of Medicines </li></ul><ul><li>Production of Food Products </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion of Food for Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogenic Bacteria </li></ul>
  10. 12. Nitrogen Fixation <ul><li>All eukaryotes need nitrogen for basic cellular function. </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen is a major component of proteins and DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria take nitrogen out of the air and convert it to a form plants can use. </li></ul>
  11. 14. Recycling Nutrients <ul><li>Decay is caused by bacteria and fungi. </li></ul><ul><li>Organic matter is recycled into original elements by bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Composted material important garden component </li></ul>
  12. 15. Cleaning up Pollution <ul><li>BIOREMEDIATION uses living things to change polluting chemicals into less harmful chemicals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mine tailings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil spills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural Waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipal Waste </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Production of Medicines <ul><li>Genetically modified bacteria produce: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-cancer drugs </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. Dangerous Bacteria <ul><li>PATHOGENIC bacteria cause diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>These bacteria attack: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other bacteria! </li></ul></ul>

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