Classification Ms


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Classification Ms

  1. 1. taks-AHN-uh-mee Sorting out the whatchamacallits
  2. 2. Definition of Terms <ul><li>Taxonomy: the science of identifying, classifying, and naming living things. </li></ul><ul><li>Classification: the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why Classify? <ul><li>Humans have an innate need to seek order in their surroundings. </li></ul><ul><li>Order helps us understand how the world works. </li></ul><ul><li>We can communicate better when everyone knows what we are talking about. </li></ul>
  4. 4. History of Classification <ul><li>Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) had a simple method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants and Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animals lived on land, in water, or in air </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants had three different types of stems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This worked until explorers found many new organisms that didn’t fit his system. </li></ul><ul><li>Common names often varied from region to region or were inaccurate (ex: Jellyfish) </li></ul>
  5. 5. History of Classification <ul><ul><li>Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) developed a system with hierarchical categories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on shared physical characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses seven levels of organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The largest is Kingdom and the most specific is Species . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Classification Hierarchy <ul><li>Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum (Division….for plants) </li></ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Genus </li></ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul>
  7. 9. Classification Hierarchy <ul><li>K </li></ul><ul><li>P </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></ul><ul><li>F </li></ul><ul><li>G </li></ul><ul><li>S </li></ul>
  8. 10. Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>Binomial nomenclature : </li></ul><ul><li>bi =two nom =name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always in Latin. Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latin is a universal language. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Species name (scientific name) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always in this form: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genus species identifier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Species identifier is often descriptive, geographical, or named after someone </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>Additional levels of classification beyond Genus and Species include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varieties : PLANTS with slightly different qualities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subspecies : ANIMALS in different geographical regions </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Binomial Nomenclature <ul><ul><li>Prunus persica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variety: Nectarine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prunus persica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variety: Peach </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>Terrapene carolina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Eastern Box Turtle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terrapene carolina triungui </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has three toes instead of four on back feet. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Modern Taxonomy <ul><li>Phylogeny : The evolutionary history of an organism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Phylogeny tree diagram shows the relationship of organisms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses the same evidence used by evolutionary biologists: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fossil Record </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing structures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embryo development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 17. The Six Kingdom System <ul><li>Kingdom Archaebacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ archae” is Greek for ancient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicelluler with unique biochemical properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique gene sequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live in extreme environments like hotsprings, sea vents </li></ul></ul>
  14. 18. The Six Kingdom System <ul><li>Kingdom Eubacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ eu” means true </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly aerobic, but some are anaerobic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect the lives of humans in many ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid reproduction allows evolutionary response to surroundings </li></ul></ul>
  15. 19. The Six Kingdom System <ul><li>Kingdom Protista </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly single-celled eukaryotic organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains organisms that “don’t fit” into other kingdoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share aspects of plant and animal kingdom- feed on other organisms but may also use photosynthesis (ex: Euglena) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. The Six Kingdom System <ul><li>Kingdom Fungi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All fungi absorb nutrients from their surroundings, nature’s recyclers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecularly speaking they are closer to animals then to plants (Chitin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often work in symbiosis with plants to provide nutrients or protection from disease </li></ul></ul>
  17. 21. The Six Kingdom System <ul><li>Kingdom Plantae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nearly all are autotrophic eukaryotes (PHOTOSYNTHESIS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a sexual cycle based on meiosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most live on land </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. The Six Kingdom System <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic multicellular eukaryotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a sexual cycle based on meiosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symmetrical body organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most have some mobility </li></ul></ul>
  19. 24. The Three Domain System <ul><li>Based on molecular work with Ribosomal RNA </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms tested fall into one of three distinct Domains </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced in 1990 by Carl Woese (discovered Archeabacteria) </li></ul>
  20. 25. The Three Domain System <ul><li>Domain Archaea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The same members as Kingdom Archaebacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domain Bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The same members as Kingdom Eubacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domain Eukarya </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of Kingdoms Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia </li></ul></ul>