2. Objectives • Examine the Jim Crow laws and describe efforts to end segregation in the 1940s and 1950s. • Explain the importance of Brown v. Board of Education and the impact of the Montgomery Bus Boycott • Describe the controversy over school desegregation in Little Rock, Arkansas.
3. Terms and People• de jure segregation − segregation that is imposed by law• de facto segregation − segregation by unwritten custom or tradition• Earl Warren – Supreme Court Chief Justice who wrote the decision that ended segregation in public schools• Civil Rights Act of 1957 − law that established a federal Civil Rights Commission• Montgomery bus boycott − a 1955-1956 protest by African Americans in Montgomery, Alabama, against racial segregation in the bus system
4. How did African Americans challengesegregation after World War II?African Americans were still treated as second-class citizens after World War II.Their heroic effort to attain racial equality isknown as the civil rights movement. They tooktheir battle to the street, in the form of peacefulprotests, held boycotts, and turned to the courtsfor a legal guarantee of basic rights.
5. After serving in the Army in Europe in World War II, Medgar Evers returned home to the South, where he faced a different kind of enemy: discrimination. When he and some other African American veterans tried to register to vote, a mob of armed whites blocked their way. “All we wanted to be was ordinary citizens,” Evers later said, frustrated to find his life at risk in his own country. “We fought during the war for America, Mississippi included.” Evers retreated that day, but he did not give up on his goal. He became an active member of the NAACP and a leader in the fight for Civil Rights.
6. Despite their service in World War II, segregation at home was still the rule for African Americans. de jure segregation de facto segregation• in the South • in the North• separate but equal • discrimination in housing• segregation in schools, • discrimination in hospitals, transportation, employment restaurants, cemeteries, • only low-paying jobs and beaches were available
7. • Discrimination in the defense industries was banned in 1941.World War II set • Truman desegregatedthe stage for the the military in 1948.rise of the moderncivil rights • Jackie Robinsonmovement. became the first African American to play major league baseball. • CORE was created to end racial injustice.
8. African American veterans were unwillingto accept discrimination at home afterrisking their lives overseas.
9. In 1954, many of the nation’s school systemswere segregated.The NAACP decidedto challenge schoolsegregation in thefederal courts.African Americanattorney ThurgoodMarshall led theNAACP legal team inBrown v. Board ofEducation.
10. Written by Chief Justice Earl Warren,the Brown v. Board of Education decision said: • Segregated public education violated the Fourteenth Amendment. • “Separate but equal” had no place in public education.
11. The Brown v. Board of Education ruling was significantand controversial.In a second About 100 whitedecision, Brown II, Southern members ofthe courts urged Congress opposedimplementation of the decision; in 1956the decision “with they endorsed “Theall deliberate Southern Manifesto”speed” across the to lawfully opposenation. Brown.
12. The Brown decision also met resistance on thelocal and state level. Elizabeth Eckford tries to enter Central High.
13. Some civil rights activists took direct action. In Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white person. This sparked a boycott to integrate public transportation. The black community walked or carpooled to work rather than take public transportation.The Montgomery bus boycott launched the modern civil rights movement.
14. • Martin Luther King, Jr.’s inspiring speech at a boycott meeting propelled him into the leadership of the nonviolent civil rights movement. • The black community continued its bus boycott for more than a year despite threats and violence.In 1956, the Supreme Court ruled that Martin Luther King, Jr.segregated busing was unconstitutional andthe boycott ended.
15. • It proved that they could work together and demand change.The bus boycottwas a tremendous • It inspired King and Ralph Abernathy, another Montgomeryand exciting minister, to establish thevictory for African Southern Christian LeadershipAmericans. Conference (SCLC) to continue the nonviolent struggle for civil rights. But even with these victories, discrimination and segregation remained widespread.