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Kennedy photo, HSUS: page 952.
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Kennedy launched an attack against Cuba, led by Cuban exiles. Intelligence confirmed that the Soviets were building nuclear missile sites in Cuba that threatened U.S. cities.
Missile launch site photo, HSUS: p. 957.
Missile range map, HSUS: p. 957.
Unit 6 section 1 lesson 1 kennedy and the cold war
Objectives• Explain the steps Kennedy took to change American foreign policy.• Analyze the causes and effects of the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis.• Evaluate Kennedy’s domestic policies.
How did Kennedy respond to thecontinuing challenges of the Cold War?When Kennedy took office, he faced the spreadof communism abroad and the threat ofnuclear war.His enthusiasm and commitment to changeoffered hope that the challenges of the ColdWar could be met.
John F. Kennedywon a closepresidentialelection in1960, defeatingRichard M. Nixon.
Kennedy launched a new Cold War strategy.• He built up both conventional and special military forces.• He created a flexible response defense policy.• He developed the Alliance for Progress to improve relations with Latin American countries.• He created the Peace Corps.
As ambassadors ofAmerican goodwill,the Peace Corpssent Americanvolunteersto developingnations to assistwith such servicesas education andhealthcare.
The sudden threat of Castro and Communism innearby Cuba led to two major confrontations. Bay of Pigs invasion Cuban missile crisis
In April, 1961 the United States invaded Cuba’s Bay of Pigs. Conceived by the CIA to overthrow Fidel Castro, the invasion involved Cuban exiles who had fled Castro’s rule and settled in the United States. The Bay of Pigs mission failed. The President said, however, that he wouldKennedy took responsibility continue to resist effortsfor the mission’s failure. by the communists to control other countries in Western Hemisphere.
Cuban Missile Crisis In 1962, American intelligence agencies photographed Soviet nuclear missile installations in Cuba.
The missiles at these Cuban sites threatenedmajor cities in the United States.
In Public Behind the ScenesIn a television address, Kennedy told the Soviets thatKennedy blamed Khrushchev the United States wouldfor reckless action that remove U.S. missiles fromthreatened world peace. Turkey and Italy if the SovietsKennedy initiated a U.S. removed their missiles fromnaval blockade of Cuba. Cuba.
After eight tense days, the Soviets backed off. Nikita Khrushchev agreed to honor the blockade and removed the missiles. The crisis prompted the two leaders to establish a period of détente. They set up a hot line between Washington, D.C. and Moscow to improve communication.
In 1963 theUnited States,Great Britain,the Soviet Union, This treaty endedand thirty-six above-groundother countries nuclear testing.signed the firstNuclear TestBan Treaty.
Disagreement over Berlin led to the building of the Berlin Wall.Khrushchev insisted the U.S. end its military Kennedy refused.presence in West Berlin. Khrushchev ordered the building of the Berlin Wall separating East and West Berlin.
In response to Khrushchev’s actions, Kennedyrequested a large increase in military spending.He also sent 1,500 more U.S. soldiers to West Berlin.The Berlin Wall became a symbol of the gulf between the democratic West the communist East East and the communist
ome… e at HHer •President Kennedy had a special style that made him seem different from other politicians. •The new First Family charmed Americans with their youth and energy.
Kennedy promised America a New Frontier. (Speech, 14:23-17:58)• He pledged to create • He also wanted to economic opportunity jump-start the and expand healthcare space program. and civil rights.
Some of President Kennedy’s New Frontier proposalssucceeded. Kennedy was able to: • Increase the minimum wage • Extend Social Security benefits • Improve the welfare system • Pass the first Equal Pay Act for men and womenHowever, a conservative Congress prevented Kennedy fromenacting all of the programs he proposed.
Civil rights marches and demonstrations took place all across the countryKennedy introduced a civil rights bill in 1963.He also proposed to strengthen civil rights in response tothe violence in the South.
Kennedy recognized the need for the United States to beatthe Soviet Union in the space race. He made it a national goal to place a man on the moon before 1970. Congress gave generous funding to NASA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
In July, 1969 anAmerican flag flew on the moon.
In November, 1963, while riding in a motorcade inDallas, Texas, President Kennedy wasassassinated.The senseless murder deeply saddened Americans.To many, it seemed that America’s innocence haddied with Kennedy.
After Kennedy’s death, Vice President Johnsonwas sworn in as the new President. The nation moved to resolve the economic and equality issues Kennedy had identified. Johnson also appointed the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of President Kennedy.