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Objectives • Describe the causes and results of the arms race between the United States and Soviet Union. • Explain how Eisenhower’s response to communism differed from that of Truman. • Analyze worldwide Cold War conflicts that erupted in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and other places. • Discuss the effects of Soviet efforts in space exploration.
Terms and People• arms race − race in which countries compete to build more powerful weapons• mutually assured destruction − policy in which the U.S. and Soviet Union hoped to deter nuclear war by building up enough weapons to destroy each other• brinkmanship – belief that only by going to the brink of war could the U.S. prevent war• Suez crisis − crisis in which Britain and France attempted to seize control of the Suez canal from Egypt• CIA − Central Intelligence Agency; American intelligence- gathering organization
What methods did the United Statesuse in its global struggle against theSoviet Union?By 1950, the United States and the SovietUnion were world superpowers.Tensions ran high as each stockpiledweapons and struggled for influence aroundthe globe.
The Threat of WarAfter the Soviet Union tested an atomic bomb in 1949, President Truman reported to the nation that the nature of war had forever changed: “War has undergone a technological change which makes it a very different thing from what it used to be. War today between the Soviet empire and the free nations might dig the grave not only of our Stalinist opponents, but of our own society… Such a war is not a possible policy for rational men” President Harry S. Truman
On September 2, 1949,the balance of powerbetween the U.S. and theSoviet Union changedforever.That day, the SovietUnion tested an atomicbomb.The threat of nuclear warsuddenly became veryreal.
In response, Truman ordered scientists to produce a hydrogen bomb—a bomb 1,000 times more powerful than the atomic bomb.In 1952, The nextthe U.S. year, the The armstested the Soviets race hadfirst tested their begun.H-bomb. own H-bomb.
In time, the United States and the SovietUnion would build enough nuclear weaponsto destroy each other many times over. Both sides hoped that this program of mutually assured destruction would serve as a deterrent.
For many, however, the existence of so many weapons was a further threat to peace. Nuclear Warhead ProliferationYear U.S. USSR Britain France China1945 6 0 0 0 01950 369 5 0 0 01955 3,057 200 10 0 01960 20,434 1,605 30 0 01965 31,642 6,129 310 4 1
Americans reactedto the nuclearthreat by followingcivil defenseguidelines.Families builtbomb sheltersin backyards.Students practiced“duck and cover”drills at school.
Domestic uses of Cold WarTechnologyTo give their nations a military advantage, Cold War scientists rushed to invent advanced weaponry, transportation, and communication. Inventions who origins go back to the Cold War include space travel, satellites and the Internet, and more.
5-foot tall microwave Created in 1946 A scientist working on radar-related military research notices that the candy bar in his pocket had melted. This led to the invention of the “radarange”
This 1946 computer calculated artillery trajectories and other military computations.The computer filled an entire room and required extensive writingIt weighed about 30 tons
The first GPS was created in 1980.With a GPS receiver that costs less than a few hundred dollars you can instantly learn your location on the planet--your latitude, longitude, and even altitude--to within a few hundred feet.
President Eisenhower encouraged suchefforts, believing that if there was anothermajor war, it would be nuclear. Unlike Truman, Instead, he Eisenhower was not focused on interested in fighting stockpiling communism by nuclear building weapons. conventional forces.
Joseph Stalin died in 1953.After a brief power struggle, he was succeededby Nikita Khrushchev. Cold War hostilities eased for a time, with the new leader speaking of “peaceful coexistence.”
• The Soviets crushed protests Yet hopes against communist for peace rule in Hungary. faded quickly. • The Suez crisis added to the tensions.As Americans watched events unfold, the threat ofmassive retaliation suddenly seemed useless in thefight against communism.
Nuclear weapons would not be used in the world’s“hot spots.” Global Cold War, 1946−1956
Other methods, however, would be used tohelp nations threatened by communism. • Eisenhower sent troops to quell conflicts. • He also approved secret CIA operations to promote American interests abroad.
While the U.S. worked to contain communism on the ground, they suffered a serious setback in space.In 1957, the Fearing SovietSoviets dominance of The armslaunched the space, race wasSputnik I Congress now joinedsatellite into approved by a spaceorbit around funding to race.the earth. create NASA.