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Objectives • Summarize the course of the war and identify and explain the significance of the most important military engagements. • Explore the reasons that President Truman decided to use the atomic bomb against Japan. • Articulate the reasons behind the Japanese surrender, and the role the atomic bomb played in that decision .
Terms and People•Manhattan Project – code name of the project thatdeveloped the atomic bomb.•Atomic Bomb – nuclear weapon used in Hiroshima andNagasaki•Hiroshima – Seaport in Japan where the first atom bombwas dropped.•VJ Day – Victory in Japan, August 15, 1945•United Nations - Organization founded in 1945 to promotepeace.
What was the nature of the fighting in Asia and thePacific? How did America’s involvement end theSecond World War? The war in the Pacific was ongoing since Pearl Harbor. It was not until later in the war when we would reach the first islands of Japan and brutally fight to victory. After hundreds of thousands of lives were ruthlessly killed, Truman made the decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan, ultimately ending the war.
Post Pearl Harbor, War still raged in the Pacific, where the Allies were fighting their way toward Japan.• Battles during the island-hopping campaign were fierce, with high casualties on both sides.• Kamikazes crashed into American ships. Japanese troops fought to the death.• An intense bombing campaign leveled much of Tokyo. Still, Japan refused to surrender.
Iwo Jima• The battle for Iwo Jima took place in February of 1945. ▫ The capture of Iwo Jima was part of a three-point plan the Americans had for winning the war in the Far East.
Despite its size, Iwo Jima was considered to have great tactical importance. There were two airfields on the island: Under American control, the airfields could be used asUnder Japan’s control; they emergency landing bases forcould be used by Japanese damaged airplanes in the fighter planes to attack bombing raids. They couldAmerican bombers on their also be used for American flights to Japan. fighter planes to escort the bombers, as they needed smaller runways for take-off.
The Fight• The battle was marked by some of the fiercest fighting of the War. The Imperial Japanese Army positions on the island were heavily fortified, with vast bunkers, hidden artillery, and 11 miles of tunnels• The battle was the first U.S. attack on the Japanese Home Islands• Ended a month later on March 26th.
The Bloodiest Battle of the Pacific…• Okinawa: April 1945• The U.S. military wanted Okinawa for three reasons: ▫ American medium bombers could reach the Japanese home islands from Okinawa, ▫ its seizure would sever the remaining southwest supply lines to resource-hungry Japan, ▫ and Okinawa could be used as a support base for the scheduled November invasion of Japan.
• Okinawa was the largest amphibious invasion of the Pacific campaign.• It was the last major campaign of the Pacific War.• More people died during the Battle of Okinawa than all those killed during the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Early in the war, The top secret The bomb wasFDR had program was code- successfullyauthorized named the tested in Julyscientists to Manhattan 1945.develop an atomic Project.bomb.Now it was up to Truman to decide if and when to use it.
Design of Two Bombs• The Manhattan Project produced two different types of atomic bombs ▫ code-named Fat Man and Little Boy• Fat Man= Nagasaki, nuclear implosion• Little Boy= Hiroshima, nuclear explosion
The Japanese An invasion of Japan could costrefused to up to 1,000,000 American lives.surrender.Truman’s chief priority was to save Americanlives.
On August 6, 1945, U.S. pilotsdropped an atomic bomb onHiroshima.Three days later, they dropped asecond bomb on Nagasaki.
Immediate Aftermath • In less than one second, the fireball had expanded to 900 feet. • The blast wave shattered windows for a distance of ten miles and was felt as far away as 37 miles. • Over two-thirds of Hiroshimas buildings were demolished. • The hundreds of fires, ignited by the thermal pulse, combined to produce a firestorm that had incinerated everything within about 4.4 miles of ground zero. • “Black Rain”
Physical Effects• The survivors, known as hibakusha, sought relief from their injuries.• 90 percent of all medical personnel were killed or disabled, and the remaining medical supplies quickly ran out.• Their symptoms ranged from nausea, bleeding and loss of hair, to death.• Flash burns, a susceptibility to leukemia, cataracts and malignant tumors were some of the other effects.
On August 15, Emperor Hirohito surrendered. The Allies celebrated V-J Day, marking victory in Japan.The most costly war in history was finally over.