Objectives • Explain how World War II increased opportunities for women and minorities. • Analyze the effects of the war on civil liberties for Japanese Americans and others. • Examine how the need to support the war effort changed American lives.
Terms and People• Executive Order 8802 − measure that assured fair hiring practices in jobs funded with government money• bracero program − program in which laborers were brought from Mexico to work on American farms• internment − temporary imprisonment• rationing − system that limits the amount of certain goods people can buy• 442nd Regimental Combat Team − Japanese American combat team that became the most decorated military unit in American history
How did the war change America athome?The war stirred patriotism even as itbrought out long-simmering fears andtensions.Americans from different backgroundsliving in different places across the countrymade huge sacrifices to support the wareffort.
Wartime America saw industries gearing upto produce military goods. With men joining Unlike the past, the army in huge • Women worked in numbers, women both light and stepped into jobs heavy industries. in businesses and factories. • Married and older women worked.
Wartime changes to the workforce hadlong-lasting effects.• Women earned paychecks and gained knowledge and experience.• Future generations benefited from new opportunities.• Day-care options for children expanded.
African Americans hoped for similar jobopportunities, but were disappointed. Victory against fascism Leaders called for a abroad “Double V” campaign. Victory against discrimination at homeYet many jobs, including those in the governmentand the military, remained segregated.
Labor leader A. Phillip Randolph urged Rooseveltto end discrimination in government-fundedtraining, employment, and military service. Under pressure, FDR Assured fair hiring issued Executive practices in Order 8802. government jobsSuch victories set the stage for the civil rightsstruggles to come.
Migration patterns changed as peoplemoved across the country—especially tocities—seeking jobs in wartime industries.Bracero program• To alleviate the loss of workers in rural areas, Mexican laborers were brought in to work on American farms.• Agricultural industries would continue to hire migratory labor in the West for years to come.
Population changes and racial tensions attimes triggered violence. • Urban riots • Zoot suit attacksDespite this, African Americans and MexicanAmericans continued to contribute to the wareffort.
Wartime fears also led to discrimination againstAmericans from Germany, Italy, and Japan.In time, suspicion focused on Japanese Americans.They were targeted for a combination of reasons. • Racism • Lack of political clout • Their fewer numbers and relative isolation
By executive order,more than 100,000Japanese Americanswere forced to selltheir homes andbelongings.They were thensent to isolatedinternment camps.
They remained inthe camps for therest of the war.Some JapaneseAmericans wentto court to fightfor their civilliberties.Their efforts failed.
Korematsu v. United States (1944) The Facts The Issue The Decision • In 1942, FDR ordered that Korematsu argued The court held select people could be that he was denied that the military banned from war zones. equal protection order was • The army relocated under the law justified for Japanese Americans on the because he was a security West Coast to internment Japanese American. reasons. camps. • Fred Korematsu was arrested for resisting the army’s orders.
The war • The national debteffort had a skyrocketed.huge effecton the • Taxes increased.economy. • Wages and prices were controlled.
As industriescranked outmilitary goods,consumer goodsbecame scarce.
Americans made many sacrifices, looking toward victory.Americans were • Shopped withurged to do all ration booksthey could to • Bought war bondssupport the wareffort, and they • Planted victory gardensresponded to • Collected scrap metalthe call. and other materials
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