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Plant Basics- 7th Grade

Plant Basics- 7th Grade

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  • 1. PLANTS Name all the plants you can think of… What do these all have in common? Chapter 9
  • 2. • Plants are many-celled organisms - most plants contain chlorophyll - at least 260,000 plant species have been identified - plants are adapted to nearly every environment on earth - plants are important food sources for people and animals
  • 3. • Photosynthesis - the process by which green plants use sunlight to make food from carbon dioxide and water. - Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct.
  • 5. • Plant cells have: - a cell membrane - a nucleus and other organelles - a cell wall - chlorophyll – the green pigment used in photosynthesis - a central vacuole which regulates the water content of the cell
  • 6. • Some plants also contain carotenoids - Carotenoids are red, yellow or orange pigments that are also used in photosynthesis
  • 7. • PARTS: - A cuticle is a waxy protective layer that covers the stems, leaves and flowers of many plants - The cuticle helps prevent water loss in the plant
  • 8. • Cellulose is a chemical compound made out of sugar - cellulose forms tangled fibers in cell walls and provides structure and support
  • 9. • Plants can be categorized as vascular or nonvascular • Vascular plants have tubelike structures that carry water and nutrients throughout the plant
  • 10. • Nonvascular plants do not have the tubelike structures • Nonvascular plants use other ways to move water and nutrients
  • 11. • Nonvascular plants have rhizoids instead of roots. • Rhizoids are structures that anchor the plants where they grow • Most nonvascular plants are classified as mosses
  • 12. • Botany is the science of studying plants. • In the late 1700s, Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus developed a system of classifying living things, using many different characteristics
  • 13. PARTS OF A PLANT Leaf – the organ of a plant where photosynthesis takes place
  • 14. • Stem – support the branches, leaves, and reproductive structures
  • 15. Roots – act as anchors for a growing plant, holding it in place. - Water and substances enter a plant through its roots.
  • 16. Flower – the part of certain plants that develop into fruit - Flowering plants are called agiosperms
  • 17. • Gymnosperms are vascular plants that produce seeds that are NOT protected by fruit. • Gymnosperms have no flowers • These plants include conifers, such as pine trees, fir trees, and spruce – all are common evergreen trees
  • 18. • In a seed plant, there are three tissues which make up the vascular system: - xylem - conducts water and dissolved nutrients upward from the root and also helps to form the stem - phloem - conducts sugars and other metabolic products downward from the leaves. - cambium - a thin layer between the xylem and phloem of most vascular plants that gives rise to new cells and is responsible for secondary growth.
  • 19. • In a seed plant, some spores develop into pollen • A pollen grain is a small structure produced by the male seed plant • The transfer of pollen grains to reproduce is called pollination • Pollen can be transferred by gravity, wind, water, animals or insects
  • 20. *FLOWERS* - Flowers have four main parts: petals, sepals, stamen and pistils
  • 21. • Petals are the colorful parts • Sepals are the leaflike parts outside the petals. They form the outside of the flower bud • Stamen is the male reproductive part; pollen is produced in the stamen • Pistil is the female reproductive organ; the ovary is the base of the pistil where ovules are found – ovules produce eggs, or reproductive cells