• According to the Bible, Mary was a Jewish
woman of Nazareth in Galilee.
• She is identified in the New Testament as the
mother of Jesus
• Mary is the most respected female figure
in Christianity, venerated since early times
• Christians of the Catholic Church, the Eastern
Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox
Church, Anglican Communion,
and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as
Mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God
• Mary is called Theotokos, literally "Bearer of God"
• Mary is mentioned throughout the New
• Luke's gospel mentions Mary most often,
identifying her by name twelve times, all of these
in the Infancy Narrative
• Matthew's gospel mentions her by name five
times, four of these in the Infancy Narrative and
only once outside the Infancy Narrative.
• Mark's gospel names her once by name and
mentions her as Jesus' mother without naming
her in 3:31.
• Described as Jesus' mother, she makes two
appearances in John's gospel.
• She is first seen at the wedding at Cana of Galilee
• The second reference in John has the mother of
Jesus standing near the cross of her son together
with Mary Magdalene, Mary of Cleopas and the
"disciple whom Jesus loved".
• John 2:1-12 is the only text in the canonical
gospels in which Mary speaks to (and about) the
• In the Book of Acts, Luke's second writing, Mary and
the "brothers of Jesus" are mentioned in the
company of the eleven who are gathered in the
upper room after the Ascension
• The title "Mother of God" (Theotokos) for Mary
was confirmed by the First Council of Ephesus,
held at the Church of Mary in 431 AD.
• The Council decreed that Mary is the Mother of
God because her son Jesus is one person who is
both God and man, divine and human.
• The term Mother of God had already been used
within the oldest known prayer to Mary, the
which dates to around 250 AD:
Sub tuum praesidium (Beneath Your Protection)
Under thy protection
we seek refuge, Holy Mother of God;
despise not our petitions
in our needs,
but from all dangers deliver us always,
Virgin Glorious and Blessed
• In the Catholic Church, Mary is accorded the title
"Blessed" in recognition of her assumption to
Heaven and her capacity to intercede on behalf of
those who pray to her.
• Catholic teachings make clear that Mary is not
considered divine and prayers to her are not
answered by her, they are answered by God.
• There are four Catholic dogmas regarding Mary.
• Mother of God
• Perpetual virginity of Mary
• Immaculate Conception (of Mary)
• Assumption of Mary
• Mother of God
=> First defined at the Council of Ephesus (431)
=> The dogma states that since Jesus is God, Mary is
the Mother of God
• Immaculate Conception
=> Defined by Pope Pius IX (1854)
=> Mary, at her conception, was preserved
immaculate from Original Sin
• Perpetual virginity (Ever Virgin)
Traditional, since the Third Century
'Perpetual virginity of Mary', means that Mary
was a virgin before and after giving birth to Jesus
• Assumption into heaven
=> Defined by Pope Pius XII(1950)
This dogma states that Mary,
having completed the course of
her earthly life, was assumed
body and soul into heavenly glory
• The months of May and October are traditionally
"Marian months" for Roman Catholics
• Popes have issued a number of Marian encyclicals
and Apostolic Letters to encourage devotions to
and the veneration of the Virgin Mary