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Do now: 3 minutes Take a notecard from the front. Do all of your DO NOWs on it today for a grade. DO NOW: When you think of Chinese religion(s), what comes to your mind?
We will1. Learn how Chinese religion combines animism, Daoism, Confucianism & Buddhism2. Explore historical developments of this syncretic tradition3. Discover ways Chinese govt has tried to regulate religion
Difficulties in studying Syncretic Emperor story Temples = shared Govt
History Earliest history to Shang dynasty (11th century BC) was polytheistic ancestor worship Chou dynasty (11th century BC) until common era had one supreme god above other gods and spirits focus on morality Lao-Tzu Confucious
History, cont CE – 11th century Buddhism & Taoism developed 11th century – present = eclectic synthesis
Basic Chinese Religious Concepts Multiple gods & spirits Focus on gods of heaven & earth Local deities & spirits
Basic concepts Yin Yang Yin Yang Darkness Brightness Coolness Warmth Femaleness Maleness Dampness Dryness Moon Sun
Basic concepts Filial Piety & Ancestor Worship Old & aged = worthy of respect Life begins at 60 Aged rule the home Children support elders Give elders proper burial Maintain grave sites
Basic concepts Ancestor worship Ancestors can help family after death Forget ancestors and you may become a homeless ghost Forget ancestors and you may be afflicted by dangerous spirits Small shrine in home w/names and deeds of previous generations Offerings of wine & rice Paper money
Basic concepts Divination Unity of universe means future is predictable One way to tell future by looking at shell of tortoise I Ching
Basic concepts Shang Ti (Supreme God) Chou dynasty – 11th century BC Right to rule based on morality and religion One Supreme God controlled destiny of humankind Responsible for fall of previous dynasty – they were bad Govt should be based on virtue
Decline of feudal system By 3rd century BC, feudal system declining New schools of thought (Confucianism, Taolism, Legalism) to address problems of society
Taoism Lao-Tzu (old master) 6th century BC 50 years before Confucius Left life at royal court to seek nature Gatekeeper: write Tao Te Ching
Tao Te Ching “The Classic of the Way and Its Power and Virtue” 81 chapters of poetry Debate over author/s Theme: Folly of human achievement, especially govt
Do Now: True or False 2 minutes1. Chinese religion focuses on one supreme god.2. Some Chinese religion focuses on morality and one supreme god.3. Lao-tzu’s nickname meant “Silly old goat”4. Chinese religion generally allows its followers to be Buddhist and Confucius at the same time.5. The govt system in China has affected its religious movements.
Do Now: Finish the statement4 minutes1. Lao-tzu __________________________.2. Taoism __________________________.3. _____________ is important to many Chinese religious practices.4. Early ________________, believed _____________________.5. Yin and yang ____________________.
Early Taoist Teaching Basic unity of universe is mysterious force called Tao – “The Way” yet impossible to define Life is greatest of all possessions (fame, wealth power will all decay) Life is to be lived simply Pomp & glory are to be despised
Later Taoist Developments One group followed teachings of LaoTzu (not popular appeal) Another group looking for very long life Properly attuned to the Tao = long life Food, fasting, breath control Alchemy – preserve life via minerals Persecution between Taoists/Buddhists, then merging to common religion
Confucianism Debate about religion Life – 551 BC - 497 Kung Kung Fu-tzu (Kung the master) Analects of Confucius Childhood Teens – govt worker Twenties – teacher 50s – prime minister 55 – retired, then wandering teacher
Confucian Teaching Focus on social order Religion should not interfere with social duty System of ethics
Confucian Teaching Central Themes Li – properties, rites, ceremonies, courtesy Five Lis Father to son Elder brother to younger brother Husband to wife Elder to junior Ruler to subject
Confucian Teaching Jen – inward expression of Confucian ideals – love, goodness, human- heartedness Reciprocity – “Do not do to others what you would not want others to do to you.” Humans are naturally good People need good government so that they can be good Good conduct is its own reward