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Fascist japan

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  • 1. Fascist - Japan
  • 2. What is fascist??
    • It means ‘repressive’
    • A group of people that is nationalistic, anti-Communist and authoritarian
  • 3. Beginning of Fascism
    • Fascist Movement in 1919
    • Benito Mussolini
  • 4. Mussolini’s argument
    • Democracy was bad for Italy because
      • Ineffective
      • Inefficient
    • E.g. Italy's democratically elected leaders were too weak to stop widespread unemployment and inflation
    • Threats from Communists
  • 5. His argument for Fascism
    • Nation first under Fascism
    • Democracy was inefficient because it limited the power of the nation and placed power in the people’s hand.
    • Nation should grow strong and expand
  • 6. Impact of Mussolini’s argument
    • Young men and WWI veterans were drawn to Fascist ideas
      • Glamourised action and violence
      • Power and violence was the only way to get what they want
    • Sense of belonging
    • Spread to many parts of the world. E.g. Japan
  • 7. The failure of the democratic government in Japan
    • The Diet’s limited power
    • Corruption
    • Failed to solve economic problems
      • Farmers’ difficult living conditions
      • Workers’ difficult working conditions
      • Trade imbalance
      • Great Depression 1929
  • 8. The Diet’s structure (Parliament) Emperor Prime Minister A cabinet of ministers Chosen by emperor The Army and Navy minister (veto power over emperor)
  • 9. Members of Diet (Members of Parliament)
    • 2 chambers
      • House of Peers
        • Imperial family, nobles
        • Nominated by Emperor
      • House of Representative
        • Elected by Japanese citizens
        • Emperor reserved the right to dissolve the House
  • 10. Problems with Diet
    • Did not have the power to make decisions or policies
      • Only question the decisions of the Cabinet Ministers
    • Lack democratic control the nation’s budget
      • E.g. Japanese Army’s budget
  • 11. Corruption damaged democracy’s reputation
    • Democractic leaders looked to zaibatsus to sponsor their election campaigns
    • Zaibatsus became very powerful
      • Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Sumitomo and Yasuda
    • Close ties led to rumours
  • 12. The Zaibatsu system Zaibatsu Provided for campaigns Expected to be placed at the top priority The way of the samurai. Relationship of the master and servant
  • 13. Democratic leaders failed to solve economic problems
    • Farmers’ difficult living conditions
    • Workers’ difficult working conditions
    • Trade imbalance
    • Great Depression 1929
  • 14. Trade imbalance
    • Import > Export
  • 15. The Great Depression or Wall Street Crash in 1929
  • 16. Japan during the Great Depression or the Wall Street Crash
    • The crash in Wall Street lead to economic problems in Japan because people no longer wanted Japanese goods
    • E.g. Silk prices fell by 20% in 1932
    • Lesson : Do not depend on the west
  • 17. What led to the rise of Fascism in Japan? (External Factors)
    • American expansion in the Asia Pacific region
    • Paris Peace Conference
    • Washington Naval Conference
    • London Disarmament Conference
    • Immigration laws in the USA
    • Resurgence of Chinese nationalism
  • 18. American expansion in the Asia-Pacific region
    • Japan plans to control the region
    • Commodore Matthew Perry opened Japan to American trade
    • E.g. Hawaii and the Philippines
    • Japanese militarists believed that American was trying to take control Asia-Pacific’s economy and military power
  • 19. The 3 treaties
    • What were the 3 treaties about?
  • 20. 3 treaties
    • Paris Peace Conference 1919
      • Japan requested that LON recognise that all races were equal – REJECTED
    • Washington Naval Conference 1921 – 1922
      • Felt that it was unfair
      • Attempt to restrict Japanese power
  • 21.
    • London Disarmament Conference 1930
      • Prime Minister Hamaguchi Osachi and his foreign minister Shidehara Kijuro
      • Wanted to reduce naval arms with Britain and USA
      • Wanted to improve ties with China
      • The Army accused Hamaguchi and his foreign minister of betraying Japan and being too ‘soft’ in handling the West and China
  • 22. Immigration laws in USA in the mid 1920s
    • USA tried to prevent Asian immigration
      • Isolation and protectionist policy
    • All Asian immigrants (except Filipinos)
    • Immigrants cannot be a USA citizens even if
      • Lived in USA for a long time
      • Marry Caucasians
    • California Alien Law in 1913
  • 23. Impact of USA’s immigration law
    • Angered Japanese
    • Sign as the Americans considered the Japanese as inferior
    • Many Japanese turned away from USA, democracy
    • Want to support an expansion of Japan’s empire
  • 24.  
  • 25. Resurgence of Chinese nationalism
    • 1894 – Japan took advantage of China’s weakness
      • Qing Dynasty
      • Last Emperor
    • When Qing Dynasty fell, Chinese warlords took over in 1911
    • Kuomintang and Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
  • 26.  
  • 27. China’s civil war
    • Kuomintang – Chiang Kai Shek
    • CCP - Mao Zedong
    • Chiang tried to unite China after the fall of the Qing
    • These struggles kept China weak
  • 28.
    • In 1927, KMT and CCP joined forces to fight the warlords and Chiang led the united army
    • He gained full control of China
    • The Chinese demanded an
    • end to all ‘special concession’
    • to Westerners
    • Strikes against Japanese
    • good
  • 29. Impact of China’s civil war on Japan
    • Japanese Army (Kwantung Army) realised that a strong and united Chinese government would prevent Japan from expanding
    • Kwantung Army stationed in Manchuria proposed to occupy Manchuria before anti Japanese feelings became too strong
    • They urged Japanese to support military action
  • 30.  
  • 31. “ USA’s treatment of Asia was the main reason for the rise of Fascism in Japan.” How far do you agree with the statement?

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