All matter is made of atoms and molecules,
which we will call particles.
All particles vibrate or move because they have
The state of matter they are in depends on how
strongly they are attracted to each other, how
fast they move and how much energy they
Matter that has defined shape and volume is
considered to be solid.
Particles in a solid have high attraction for each
other. The particles vibrate in place and don’t
have enough energy to get away from each
Two types of solids:
Crystalline – particles in a repeating formation
Amorphous – randomly oriented particles
A solid has defined space and volume. It will
not take the shape of the container unless
energy is expended to make it a different
shape. (think, of an ice cube in a cup)
Liquids have defined volume but not defined
The particles in a liquid can slide past each
other, and are less attracted to each other than
in a solid.
Two properties of a liquid:
Surface tension – the liquids tend to ball up and stick
Viscosity – a measure of how well the liquid flows.
Water is low viscosity, molasses is high viscosity.
A liquid has defined volume but will take the
shape of the container.
(think of water in a glass)
They have more energy than a solid
Gasses have no defined shape or volume. They
can be compressed by pressure and change
their volume and will always fill all of the
space they are given.
The particles in a gas are moving fast enough
to break away from each other and each
particle moves independently.
In a gas, there is empty space between
Pressure can effect all gases. High pressure means
that you have forced a large amount of gas particles
in a small space – like inside a tire or basketball.
Particles in a gas state are not bound to each other
and have the most energy. They take up the entire
(think of a balloon filled with air)
Example of a Gas