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The states of matter
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The states of matter

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  • 1. Solids, Liquids and Gases
  • 2.  All matter is made of atoms and molecules, which we will call particles.  All particles vibrate or move because they have energy.  The state of matter they are in depends on how strongly they are attracted to each other, how fast they move and how much energy they have.
  • 3.  Matter that has defined shape and volume is considered to be solid.  Particles in a solid have high attraction for each other. The particles vibrate in place and don’t have enough energy to get away from each other  Two types of solids:  Crystalline – particles in a repeating formation  Amorphous – randomly oriented particles
  • 4.  A solid has defined space and volume. It will not take the shape of the container unless energy is expended to make it a different shape. (think, of an ice cube in a cup)
  • 5.  Liquids have defined volume but not defined shape  The particles in a liquid can slide past each other, and are less attracted to each other than in a solid.  Two properties of a liquid:  Surface tension – the liquids tend to ball up and stick together  Viscosity – a measure of how well the liquid flows. Water is low viscosity, molasses is high viscosity.
  • 6.  A liquid has defined volume but will take the shape of the container.  (think of water in a glass)  They have more energy than a solid
  • 7.  Gasses have no defined shape or volume. They can be compressed by pressure and change their volume and will always fill all of the space they are given.  The particles in a gas are moving fast enough to break away from each other and each particle moves independently.  In a gas, there is empty space between particles.  Pressure can effect all gases. High pressure means that you have forced a large amount of gas particles in a small space – like inside a tire or basketball. Gasses
  • 8.  Particles in a gas state are not bound to each other and have the most energy. They take up the entire space.  (think of a balloon filled with air) Example of a Gas

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