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# Structure of matter (STAR review)

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### Structure of matter (STAR review)

1. 1. STAR Testing Review8th Grade ScienceStructure of MatterPeriodic Table
2. 2. Solids, Liquids and GasesSTATES OF MATTER!!!
3. 3.  All matter is made of atoms andmolecules, which we will call particles. All particles vibrate or move because theyhave energy. The state of matter they are in depends onhow strongly they are attracted to eachother.
4. 4.  Matter that has defined shape and volumeis considered to be solid. Particles in a solid have high attraction foreach other. The particles vibrate in placeand don’t have enough energy to get awayfrom each other Two types of solids: Crystalline – particles in a repeating formation Amorphous – randomly oriented particles
5. 5.  A solid has defined space and volume. Itwill not take the shape of the containerunless energy is expended to make it adifferent shape.
6. 6.  Liquids have defined volume but not definedshape The particles in a liquid can slide past eachother, and are less attracted to each other than ina solid. Two properties of a liquid: Surface tension – the liquids tend to ball up and sticktogether Viscosity – a measure of how well the liquid flows.Water is low viscosity, molasses is high viscosity.
7. 7.  A liquid has defined volume but will takethe shape of the container. They have more energy than a solid
8. 8.  Gases have no defined shape or volume.They can be compressed by pressure andchange their volume and will fill all thespace they are given. The particles in a gas are moving fastenough to break away from each other andeach particle moves independently. In a gas, there is empty space betweenparticles. Pressure can effect all gases. High pressuremeans that you have forced a large amount ofgas particles in a small space – like inside atire or basketball.Gases
9. 9. Phase Change!!!!Solid--> Liquid--> Gas-->and back!
10. 10. What IS phase change?? Phase change is the change of the state (solid, liquid, gas)that the matter is in. This change begins by either taking away energy or addingenergy to the particles of matter. These changes can start at any state and end at any state.
11. 11. Melting! Melting involves ANY solid becoming aliquid. Melting is ENDOTHERMIC- energy in theform of heat is ENTERING the reaction. The molecules are gaining enough energyto break away from their rigid structure andmove among the group.
12. 12. Melting! Every substance has a “melting point”. The melting point is the temperature atwhich the substance begins to melt. The melting point of a substance is aphysical property. **ALL substances have DIFFERENTmelting points! It’s not all the same aswater!!!!!!!
13. 13. Freezing Freezing involves ANY liquid becominga solid. Freezing is an EXOTHERMIC reaction-energy is EXITING the reaction in theform of heat (heat is leaving). The molecules are losing energy- andforced to stay in a rigid structure.
14. 14. Freezing Every Substance has a “freezing point” The freezing point is the temperaturewhere the substance begins to freeze orsolidify. The freezing point of a substance is aphysical property and varies for eachsubstance.
15. 15. Condensation Condensation is when a gas becomes aliquid. This is an EXOTHERMIC reaction-energy LEAVING in the form of heat. The molecules are losing energy andbecome a group again after being totallyindependent.
16. 16. Vaporization Evaporation is any liquid becoming a gas This reaction is ENDOTHERMIC-energy is ENTERING in the form ofheat! The molecules are gaining SO muchenergy that they are becoming totallyindependent and fly away on their own!
17. 17. Vaporization There are two types: Boiling Evaporation
18. 18. Boiling Boiling is… a relatively quick change from a liquid to a gas Occurs by adding a lot of heat all at once Happens at a specific temperature The change happens within the ENTIRE fluid-all molecules are being affected.
19. 19. Evaporation Evaporation is… A relatively slow process Occurs overtime from gas particles crashingonto the surface of the liquid and passing ontheir energy to the liquid molecules. No specific temperature associated with thischange (can happen at room temp!) Happens only on the surface of the liquid.
20. 20.  Particles in a gas state are not bound to eachother and have the most energy.Example of a Gas
21. 21. The parts of an Atom
22. 22. The atom An Atom: The most basic unit of matter. An atom has a dense nucleus and a cloud ofnegatively charged electrons around it. If matter is what everything is made of, andmatter is made of atoms… Then, everything is really made of atoms!
23. 23. The Parts: Electron: A subatomic particle with a negativeelectrical charge. (no mass) Nucleus: The dense center of an atomcontaining protons and neutrons. A Proton: A subatomic particle within thenucleus of an atom that has a positive charge. A Neutron: A subatomic particle within thenucleus of an atom that has a neutral charge.
24. 24. Energy Level The energy level of an atom is as follows: 2,8,8 The first shell has two electrons The second shell has 8 electrons The third shell has 8 electronsMEMORIZE: 2,8,8!!!!!!!!!!
25. 25. Atomic Number The atomic number is thenumber mainly associatedwith the element andrepresents the number ofprotons present in theatom.
26. 26. Mass Number The total number ofprotons and neutrons. The mass of an atom comesfrom the protons andneutrons. Therefore, the mass includesthe masses of each addedtogether. This number can be found atthe bottom, typically.Mass Number
27. 27. Element Each of these are ELEMENTS!!! When you put them together, they becomesomething different…
28. 28. Compounds! Remember that compounds are merely theresult of combining two or more elements. H2O is a compound! NaCl is a compound! REMEMBER- compounds have differentproperties than the elements they are madeof when alone. Hence why table salt (NaCl) doesn’t blow up
29. 29. How can you identify Elements? What are the elements in the followingcompounds? H2O NaCl CO2
30. 30. Periodic Table!! Remember that beautiful display ofelements? It’s time to remember how to use it!
31. 31. Time to test your knowledge! How many groups are there? Which group number are the noble (inert) gases? Why are the noble gases important? Where are the metals located? Where are the semi-metals? Where are the Alkali metals located? Where are the Alkaline Earth metals located?
32. 32. Review of Chemical BondingIonic, Covalent, Metallic
33. 33. Ionic Bonds Ionic Bonds occur between metals and non-metals. Metals always lose their extra valenceelectrons and non-metals always try to gainextra valence electrons. Metals become positive ions and non-metals become negative ions.
34. 34. Ionic Bonds Properties of Ionic Bonds: Brittle (breaks easily) Extremely high melting and boiling points Conduct electricity Form between ions (metals & non-metals)
35. 35. Covalent Bonds Covalent bonds occur between non-metalsand non-metals Since non-metals are always trying to findextra electrons rather than get rid of them,Covalent bonds always share their electrons(how nice of them!)
36. 36. Covalent Bonds Properties of Covalent Bonds Malleable (can be formed/manipulated) Low melting and boiling points Do not conduct electricity or heat
37. 37. Metallic Bonds Metallic bonds occur between metals andmetals. Remember that all metals are always tryingto lose their extra electrons to becomehappy. In Metallic bonds metals “pool” theirelectrons and all become ions while“swimming” around in the pool of electrons(AKA the “sea of negativity”)
38. 38. Metallic Bonds Properties of Metallic Bonds: Malleable Ductile (can be stretched into wires) Conducts heat and electricity