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# Notes simple machines

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• 1. WHAT ARE SIMPLE MACHINES?&#x2022; A simple machine is a device that makes work easier. They often change the direction or magnitude of a force and offer mechanical advantage.&#x2022; Simple machines are seen as the building blocks of more complex machines.&#x2022; Simple machines allow an applied force to work against a load force.
• 2. HOW DID WE FIGURE ALL OF THIS OUT?&#x2022; The group of devices were defined by renaissance scientists and are widely used to this day! &#x2022; Archimedes first theorized the simple machine, but mainly studied the lever, pulley and screw. These three are known as the &#x201C;Archimedean&#x201D; simple machines. What a guy! &#x2022; Also, our old favorite Galileo Galilei was the first to discover that the machines did not create energy they just transformed it. He wrote about this in his publication: &#x201C;Le Meccaniche&#x201D; (on mechanics)
• 3. HOW MANY SIMPLE MACHINES ARE THERE?There are a total of 6 simple machines: 1.Lever 2.Inclined Plane 3.Wheel and Axle 4.Screw 5.Wedge 6.Pulley
• 4. THE LEVER&#x2022; The lever is made by constructing some type of beam (long straight piece of material) and attach it to a fulcrum.&#x2022; This design allows the input force to be magnified for a greater output force.
• 5. THE LEVER (CONTINUED)&#x2022; There are 3 classes of levers and they all depend on where the fulcrum is: 1. Class one- fulcrum is in the middle (see-saw or scissors) 2. Class two- Fulcrum is on opposite side of where the force is being applied (wheel barrow or nut cracker) 3. Class three- Force in middle, fulcrum on one side and resistance on the other (tweezers)
• 6. THE INCLINED PLANE&#x2022; An inclined plane is a flat surface (ramp) at an angle to the ground making lifting or lowering easier.&#x2022; Incline planes reduce force required to move objects by changing the ratio of the distance the objects travels vs. the height it was lifted/lowered.
• 7. THE WHEEL AND AXLE&#x2022; This is a wheel connected to an axle (straight bar) that rotate together. &#x2022; A hinge or bearing typically supports the wheel. &#x2022; This is a cousin of the lever, as the hinge acts as the fulcrum.
• 8. THE SCREW&#x2022; The screw is a machine that changes rotational (round) motion into linear (straight) motion.&#x2022; A screw is typically a cylinder with threads wrapped around it. The screw moves into another object with or without threads that match.&#x2022; Screws amplify force. The larger the distance between the threads on the screw, the more magnified the force.
• 9. THE WEDGE&#x2022; The wedge is a triangular shaped tool that is essentially a small, transportable inclined plane.&#x2022; The wedge is typically used to separate two objects, lift an object, or hold an object in place.&#x2022; Force is applied to the blunt end and then the force is translated into a perpendicular force to the plane.&#x2022; The longer the wedge the more the mechanical advantage (although it takes longer).
• 10. THE PULLEY&#x2022; A pulley is a type of wheel and axle that has a cable/belt/rope/chain running along it&#x2019;s circumference in a designated groove.&#x2022; There are three main types of pulley systems:1. Fixed Pulley 2. Moveable Pulley 3. CompoundPulley
• 11. THE PULLEYExamples of Pulleys in every day life: