2.
Work<br />Weight<br />Lifting Force<br />Work- A force acting through a distance.<br />The distance that the object moves must be in the same direction as the force applied to the object.<br />What force is having to be overcome by the lifting force?<br />Movement Distance<br />
3.
Work<br />Weight<br />Lifting Force<br />Work- A force acting through a distance.<br />The distance that the object moves must be in the same direction as the force applied to the object.<br />What force is having to be overcome by the lifting force?<br />Weight!<br />Movement Distance<br />
4.
Work<br />Pushing Force<br />Distance Moved<br />Work- A force acting through a distance.<br />The distance that the object moves must be in the same direction as the force applied to the object.<br />What force is having to be overcome by the pushing force?<br />
5.
Work<br />Pushing Force<br />Distance Moved<br />Work- A force acting through a distance.<br />The distance that the object moves must be in the same direction as the force applied to the object.<br />What force is having to be overcome by the pushing force?<br />Friction!<br />
6.
Lifting Force<br />Movement Distance<br />Work is not done every time a force is applied. <br />Work is done only when a force moves an object in the same direction as the applied force.<br />Is the man doing work when he lifts the box?<br />Yes.<br />Is the man doing work when he holds the box?<br />Is the man doing work if he carries the box?<br />No!<br />No!<br />(But he IS applying a force) <br />(But he IS applying a force) <br />
7.
Work<br />Think about pushing on wall that does not move. A force is applied but the wall has not moved a distance. <br />Is work done?<br />
8.
Work<br />No!<br />But I did expend energy applying a force!<br />Think about pushing on wall that does not move. A force is applied but the wall has not moved a distance. <br />Is work done?<br />
9.
Calculating Work<br />Work = force (N) x distance (m)<br />W = F x D<br />The unit for work is a Joule (J). <br />If you lifted an object weighing 1N through a distance of 1m, you did 1 Joule of work:<br /> W = FD = 1N x 1m = 1 J<br />Think about how much force a Newton is…about ¼ of a pound. <br />Is a Joule of work…very much work?<br />No!<br />
10.
Calculating Work<br />If you lifted an object weighing 200 N through a distance of 0.5m, how much work would you do?<br />
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Calculating Work<br />If you lifted an object weighing 200 N through a distance of 0.5m, how much work would you do?<br />Work = force x distance = 200 N x 0.5m = 100 J.<br />
12.
Power<br />Power is the rate at which work is done , or the amount of work per unit of time.<br />Two men can move a lot of sand using shovels…<br />…but a front-end loader can do it in less time…<br />…because the front-end loader has more POWER.<br />
13.
Power<br />Power is the rate at which work is done , or the amount of work per unit of time.<br />Power = work / time or <br />Power = force x distance / time<br />Because work = force x distance<br />
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Power<br />The unit for power is watt (W). One watt is equal to 1 joule per second (1 J/sec).<br />Large quantities of power are measured in kilowatts (kW). <br />One kilowatt equals _____ watts.<br />1000<br />
15.
Machines : How do machines affect work?<br />A machine is a device that makes work easier.<br />A machine is ANY device that helps you to do something.<br />
16.
Machines : How do machines affect work?<br />What are other examples of machines?<br />
20.
Machine Efficiency:Input and Output<br />There are always two types of work involved in using a machine. <br />Input work is the work that goes into the machine (like turning a pencil sharpener).<br />Output work is the work that comes out of the machine (like the grinding of the pencil).<br />How hard was that??<br />
21.
Machine Efficiency: Input and Output<br />The efficiency of a machine can be calculated:<br /> Efficiency = (work output / work input) x 100<br />This is easy to remember…think about it… <br />If you put 100 Joules of work into a pencil sharpener, but only got 80 Joules of work out, the pencil sharpener is 80% efficient:<br />(80 Joules / 100 Joules) x 100 = 80% efficiency<br />
22.
Machine efficiency can never be greater than or equal to 100% because the work output can never be greater than the work input.<br />In other words, there is no machine that has a 100% efficiency!<br />Why not?<br />
23.
Machine efficiency can never be greater than or equal to 100% because the work output can never be greater than the work input.<br />In other words, there is no machine that has a 100% efficiency!<br />Why not?<br />Think…it’s a force that opposes motion…<br />
24.
Machine efficiency can never be greater than or equal to 100% because the work output can never be greater than the work input.<br />In other words, there is no machine that has a 100% efficiency!<br />Why not?<br />Think…it’s a force that opposes motion…<br />Friction!<br />Friction makes every machine <100% efficient<br />
25.
Machine Efficiency<br />The friction in a machine “wastes” energy in the form of heat<br />Machines with the smallest amount of friction are the most efficient.<br />
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Machine Efficiency<br />The closer the work output is to work input, the more efficient the machine.<br />Toyota hybrid “concept car”<br />
27.
Many household appliances have energy guides that tell the consumer how efficient the appliance is. The more efficient the appliance the more money the consumer will save.<br />
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You can also look for the “energy star” label on more efficient machines.<br />
29.
Machines<br />More force<br />Machines make work easier because they change the size or the direction of the force put into the machine.<br />
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Machines<br />Most machines make work easier by <br />multiplying either force or distance.<br />Which does which?<br />
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Machines<br />Most machines make work easier by <br />multiplying either force or distance.<br />Force!<br />Distance!<br />Which does which?<br />
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Machines<br />What is multiplied, force or distance?<br />
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Machines<br />What is multiplied, force or distance?<br />Distance<br />Force<br />Force when “prying” the dirt free, distance when lifting it up out of the hole or into a truck or wheelbarrow<br />
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Determining How Helpful a Machine Is<br />Besides the efficiency of a machine we also can determine how helpful a machine is.<br />
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Determining How Helpful a Machine Is<br />Effort Force<br />Resistance Force<br />What we mean by how helpful is how many times the machine multiples the effort force to overcome the resistance force<br />
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Determining How Helpful a Machine Is<br />?<br />?<br />Effort Force or Resistance Force?<br />?<br />
37.
Determining How Helpful a Machine Is<br />?<br />Effort Force<br />Resistance Force<br />?<br />Effort Force or Resistance Force?<br />Effort Force<br />?<br />
38.
Determining How Helpful a Machine Is<br />The number of times a machine multiplies the effort force is called the mechanical advantage.<br />This tells you how much force is gained by using the machine. The more times the machine multiples the effort force, the easier it is to do the job.<br />
39.
Quick quiz –think out loud<br />1. What is a machine?<br />2. Describe relationship between friction and the efficiency of a machine.<br />
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Inclined Plane<br />Inclined plane: A ramp is an example of an inclined plane. It is simply a flat slanted surface. It has no moving parts.<br />An inclined plane decreases the size of the effort force needed to move an object.<br />
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Wedge<br />Wedge: An inclined plane that moves.<br />In a wedge, instead of an object moving along the inclined plane, the inclined plane itself moves to raise the object. <br />
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Lever<br />Lever : A lever is a rigid bar that is free to pivot , or move about a fixed point. The fixed point is called the fulcrum. <br />
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Wheel and Axle<br />A wheel and axle is a simple machine made up of two circular objects of different sizes. The wheel is the larger object. It turns around a smaller object called the axle.<br />
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Wheel and Axle<br />The mechanical advantage depends on the radius of the wheel and of the axle.<br />
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Screw<br />Screw : A screw is inclined plane wrapped around a central bar or cylinder to form a spiral.<br />
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Pulley<br />A pulley is a rope, belt, or chain wrapped around a grooved wheel. <br />A pulley can function in two ways. It can change the direction of a force or the amount of force.<br />
48.
Compound Machines<br />Simple or compound machines cannot multiply work. You can get no more work out of a machine than you put into it.<br />
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