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Chapter 7.2 Notes
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Chapter 7.2 Notes


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  • 1. Section 2: Inside the Eukaryotic Cell
    • Preview
    • Bellringer
    • Key Ideas
    • The Framework of the Cell
    • Directing Cellular Activity
    • Protein Processing
    • Storage and Maintenance
    • Energy Production
    • Summary
  • 2. Bellringer
    • Use a light microscope to view a slide of a eukaryotic cell. Try to find the nucleus of the cell and give your reason why you identified the structure as the nucleus.
  • 3. Key Ideas
    • What does the cytoskeleton do?
    • How does DNA direct activity in the cytoplasm?
    • What organelles are involved in protein production?
    • What are vesicles and vacuoles?
    • How does the cell get energy?
  • 4. The Framework of the Cell
    • The cytoskeleton helps the cell move, keep its shape, and organize its parts.
      • Like a human’s skeleton
    • There are three different kinds of cytoskeleton fibers: microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate fibers.
  • 5. Directing Cellular Activity
    • DNA contains instructions for making proteins which control most of the activity of the cell.
    • The DNA of eukaryotic cells is stored in the nucleus.
  • 6. Directing Cellular Activity, continued
    • Nucleus
    • The nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus.
    • Nuclear pores located on the nuclear envelope act as channels to allow certain molecules to move in and out of the nucleus.
    • The nucleolus is a structure within the nucleus where ribosomes are made.
  • 7. The Nucleus A B C D Click to animate the image.
  • 8. Directing Cellular Activity, continued
    • Ribosomes
    • Each ribosome in a cell is made of RNA and many different proteins.
    • Free ribosomes make proteins that remain inside the cell.
  • 9. Protein Processing
    • Proteins that are sent outside the cell are packaged in vesicles. Vesicles are small, membrane-bound sacs that enclose the proteins.
      • Like sending mail (need to put mail in an envelope)
    • The endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus are organelles involved in preparing proteins for extracellular export.
  • 10. Protein Processing, continued
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • The endoplasmic reticulum, or ER, is a system of internal membranes that moves proteins and other substances through the cell.
    • The endoplasmic reticulum is divided into two portions: rough ER and smooth ER.
  • 11. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  • 12. Protein Processing, continued
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • The portion of the ER with attached ribosomes is called rough ER because it has a rough appearance
    • The portion of the ER with no attached ribosomes is called smooth ER because it has a smooth appearance
  • 13. Visual Concept: Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and Ribosomes
  • 14. Protein Processing, continued
    • Golgi Apparatus
    • The Golgi apparatus is a set of flattened, membrane-bound sacs.
    • The Golgi apparatus helps modify, sort, and package cell products for distribution.
  • 15. Golgi apparatus
  • 16.  
  • 17. Storage and Maintenance
    • Lysosomes
    • A lysosome is a vesicle produced by the Golgi apparatus that contains enzymes that break down large molecules.
    • Lysosomes recycle old or damaged organelles and digest food particles to provide nutrients for the cell.
    • (the “stomach” of a cell)
  • 18. Visual Concept: Lysosomes
  • 19. Storage and Maintenance, continued
    • Vacuoles
    • A vacuole is a fluid-filled vesicle found in the cytoplasm of many plant cells.
    • Plant cells contain a large compartment called the central vacuole, which stores water, ions, nutrients, and wastes.
    • When water fills the central vacuole, the cell becomes rigid, allowing the plant to stand up. When the vacuole loses water, the cell shrinks, and the plant wilts.
  • 20. Visual Concept: Vacuoles
  • 21. Energy Production, continued
    • Chloroplasts
    • A chloroplast is an organelle found in plant and algae cells that uses light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water.
  • 22. Energy Production, continued
    • Mitochondria
    • Mitochondria are cell organelles that use energy from organic compounds to make ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate – the main energy source for cells).
  • 23. Mitochondrion
  • 24. Summary
    • The cytoskeleton helps the cell move, keep its shape, and organize its parts
    • In the cytoplasm, ribosomes use the RNA messages to assemble proteins.
    • The endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus are organelles involved in preparing proteins for extracellular export.
  • 25. Summary, continued
    • Vesicles help maintain homeostasis by storing and releasing a variety of substances as the cell needs them.
    • The energy for cellular functions is produced by chemical reactions that occur in the mitochondria and chloroplasts.