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8 Africa

8 Africa






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    8 Africa 8 Africa Presentation Transcript

    • Early Civilizations in Africa
    • Africa’s Size 5 0 0 0 M I L E S # Second largest continent # 10% of the world’s population 4600 MILES
    • ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. The Continent of Africa
    • The Emergence of Civilization   The Land  5,000 miles long  Sahara is the great divide Nomadic—herders  Migration: Bantu peoples • cultivation of crops and ironworking    Family=basic social unit  Extended families/clans Animism: spiritual religion/ancestor worship Griots: specialized storytellers, pass history
    • ©2004 Wadsworth , a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Ancient Africa Bantu migration spread use of iron across continent
    • Axum   Axum  trading state, goods from South Asia to the Mediterranean  Prosperous  Control of ivory trade  Had written language Followed Coptic Christianity  Mixes Christian beliefs and African traditions  Would be renamed Ethiopia
    • Stele, Ezana’s Royal Tomb, Aksum (4c)
    • Christian Church, Lalibela
    • Christian Church, Lalibela Coptic Christian Priest
    • The States of West Africa  Expansion of Islam   Ghana     Arabic Gold-Salt Trade Very wealthy Kings did not convert to Islam, people did Mali   Gold trade Mansa Musa (1312-1337), encouraged Islam, built university in Timbuktu
    • Gold-Salt Trade SALT GOLD Berbers
    • Ghana Empire [4c-11c] Gold “Money”, Ghana/Ivory Coast
    • Salt
    • King of Ghana "The King . . .(wears). . . necklaces round his neck and bracelets on his forearms and he puts on a high cap decorated with gold and wrapped in a turban of fine cotton. He (meets people) in a domed pavilion around which stand ten horses covered with goldembroidered materials…and on his right, are the sons of the (lesser) kings of his country, wearing splendid garments and their hair plaited with gold. At the door of the pavilion are dogs of excellent pedigree. Round their necks they wear collars of gold and silver, studded with a number of balls of the same metals." 10th century geographer Al-Bakri, quoted in Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History.
    • Mali Empire [13c-15c] SALT GOLD
    • Timbuktu-”Heavenly Clay”
    • Timbuktu Rooftop, Mosque
    • Great Mosque at Djenne, Mali
    • Mansa Musa [r. 1312-1337]
    • East Africa   Self-governing city-states  Trade with the interior, Indian Ocean, China, and along the coast  Ex: Zanzibar Mixed African-Arab culture  Mixed culture and language called Swahili
    • Swahili-Speaking Areas of E. Africa SWAHILI [“the coast’] = Bantu + some Arabic
    • Stateless Societies in Southern Africa     From the basin of the Congo River to the Cape of Good Hope Stateless society: power is not in a government Progress made with regional trade Zimbabwe (Sacred House, Great Stone House)    Capital known as Great Zimbabwe Benefited from trade between interior and coast Evidence of great wealth, but Great Zimbabwe abandoned
    • Great Zimbabwe [1200-1450]
    • Great Zimbabwe Street
    • Great Enclosure, Zimbabwe
    • African Culture  Painting and Sculpture   Music and Dance      Often served religious purposes Wide variety of instruments Integration of voice and instrument Music produced for social rituals and educational purposes Architecture      Rock paintings, wood carving, pottery, metalwork Pyramid Stone pillars Stone buildings Sometimes reflected Moorish styles Literature    Written works did not exist in the early traditional period Professional storytellers, bards Importance of women in passing down oral traditions