The Han Restore Unity in China Troubled Empire • In the Qin Dynasty the peasants resent high taxes and harsh labor, and rebel.
The Han Restore Unity in China Liu Bang Founds the Han Dynasty • Liu Bang defeats Xiang Yu, a rival for power, and founds the Han Dynasty • The Han Dynasty begins about 202 B.C. and lasts about 400 years. • Han Dynasty has great influence on Chinese people and culture • Liu Bang establishes centralized government— a central authority rules. • Liu Bang lowers taxes and reduces punishments to keep people happy
The Han Restore Unity in China The Empress Lü • Liu Bang dies in 195 B.C.; wife Lü seizes control of empire • Empress Lü rules for her young son and outlives him. • There are palace plots and power plays occur throughout Han Dynasty
The Han Restore Unity in China The Martial Emperor • Liu Bang’s great-grandson Wudi rules from 141 to 87 B.C. • “Martial Emperor” Wudi defeats Xiongnu (nomads) and mountain tribes • Colonizes Manchuria, Korea, and as far south as what is now Vietnam
A Highly Structured Society Emperor’s Role • Chinese believe their emperor has authority to rule from god. • Believe prosperity is the reward of good rule, and troubles reveal poor rule.
A Highly Structured Society Structures of Han Government • Complex bureaucracy runs Han government • People pay taxes and supply labor and military service • Government uses peasant labor to carry out public projects
A Highly Structured Society Confucianism, the Road to Success • Wudi’s government employs 130,000; bureaucracy of 18 ranks of jobs • Civil service jobs—government jobs obtained through examinations. • Job applicants begin to be tested on knowledge of Confucianism • Wudi favors Confucian scholars, builds schools to train them • Only sons of wealthy can afford expensive schooling • Civil service system works well, continues unil 1912
Han Technology Revolutionizes Chinese Life Technology, Commerce, and Culture• Invention of paper in A.D. 105 helps spread education• Collar harness, plow, and wheelbarrow improve farming
Han Technology, Commerce, & Culture Agriculture Versus Commerce • As population grows, farming regarded as important activity • Government allows monopolies—control by one group over key industries • Techniques for producing silk become state secret as profits increase
Han Unifies Chinese Culture Bringing Different Peoples Under Chinese Rule • To unify empire, Chinese government encourages assimilation • Assimilation—integrating conquered peoples into Chinese culture • Writers encourage unity by recording Chinese history
An emperor translating classicaltexts from the history of theChinese emperors.
Han Unifies Chinese Culture Women’s Roles—Wives, Nuns, and Scholars • Most women work in the home and on the farm • Some upper-class women are educated, run shops, practice medicine
The Fall of the Han and Their Return The Rich Take Advantage of the Poor • Large landowners gain control of more and more land • Gap between rich and poor increases
The Fall of the Han and Their Return Wang Mang Overthrows the Han • Economic problems and week emperors cause political instability • In A.D. 9, Wang Mang seizes power and stabilizes empire • Wang Mang is assassinated in A.D. 23; Han soon regain control
The Fall of the Han and Their Return The Later Han Years • Peace is restored. The Later Han Dynasty lasts until A.D. 220