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6 1 the roman republic


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  • 1. The Roman Republic Chapter 6, Section 1
  • 2. The Origins of Rome Rome’s Geography  Site of Rome chosen for its fertile soil and strategic location  Located on Italian Peninsula in the center of the Mediterranean Sea.  Built on seven hills along Tiber River The First Romans  Latins, Greeks, and Etruscans compete for control of the region.  Latins found original settlement of Rome between 1000 B.C. and 500 B.C.  Etruscans native to northern Italy influence Roman civilization
  • 3. The Early Republic Early Rulers  Around 600 B.C. Etruscan kings begin to rule Rome.  Kings build Rome’s first temples and public centers  Romans overthrow cruel Etruscan kings in 509 B.C.  Romans found a republic—a government in which citizens elect leaders.
  • 4. The Early Republic Patricians and Plebeians  Different groups struggle for power in early Roman Republic  Patricians—wealthy landowning class that holds most of the power  Plebeians—artisans, merchants and farmers; can vote, but cannot rule  Tribunes—elected representatives who protect Plebeians’ rights
  • 5. The Early Republic Twelve Tables  In 451 B.C. officials carve Roman laws on twelve tablets.  Called the Twelve Tables, they become the basis for later Roman law.  Laws confirm the right of all free citizens to the protection of the law.  Citizenship is limited to adult male landowners.  The Twelve Tables are hung in the Forum
  • 6. The Early Republic Government Under the Republic  Rome elects two consuls—one to lead the army and one to direct government.  Senate—chosen from Roman upper class; makes foreign and domestic policy.  Democratic assemblies elect tribunes and makes laws for common people.  Dictators are leaders appointed briefly in times of crisis.
  • 7. The Early Republic The Roman Army  Roman legion—military unit of 5,000 infantry, supported by cavalry.  Army is powerful and a key factor in Rome’s rise to greatness.
  • 8. Rome Spreads Its Power Rome Conquers Italy  The Romans defeat the Etruscans in the north and the Greek city-states in the south.  By 265 B.C., Rome controls the entire Italian peninsula.  Rome treats the conquered peoples justly. This enables Rome to grow.
  • 9. Rome Spreads Its Power Rome’s Commercial Network  Rome establishes a large trading network.  Access to the Mediterranean Sea provides many trade routes.  Carthage, a powerful city-state in North Africa, soon rivals Rome.
  • 10. Rome Spreads Its Power War with Carthage  Rome and Carthage begin the Punic Wars—three wars between 264 through 146 B.C.  Rome defeats Carthage and wins Sicily in the first 23-year war.  Hannibal, the Carthaginian general, avenges this defeat in the Second Punic War.  He attacks Italy through Spain and France, but doesn’t take Rome. Rome Triumphs  Roman general Scipio defeats Hannibal in 202 B.C.  Rome destroys Carthage and enslaves its people in the Third Punic War from 149-146 B.C.
  • 11. Hannibalcrossing theAlps in theSecondPunic War