PHILIP BUILDS MACEDONIANPOWER Macedonia Macedonia—Kingdom of mountain villages north of Greece King Philip II—ruler, brilliant general; dreams of controlling Greece Macedonians call themselves Greek; rest of Greece does not Philip’s Army Philip creates well-trained professional army; plans to invade Greece
PHILIP BUILDS MACEDONIANPOWER Conquest of Greece Itwas easy because “more than one Greek city felt ambivalent about fighting back.” (Bauer, p. 579) Some Greek cities invited Philip to invade Athens asked Sparta for help against invasion, but Sparta declined At the Battle of Chaeronea one thousand Athenians were killed. 338 B.C. Macedonians defeat Greece
PHILIP BUILDS MACEDONIANPOWER (CONT.) After the Battle of Chaeronea, Philip changes his strategy and treats Athens with great respect, releasing Athenian prisoners of war. As a result the Athenians then “chose to pretend that Philip was now a friend of Athens.” (Bauer, p. 580) Philip makes a speech at Corinth suggesting Greek submission to his kingship would be good for Greece. The Corinthian League is formed, led by King Philip, with the intent of attacking the Persians.
MURDER OF PHILIP Philip married again, for a fifth time, a Macedonian woman. His son Alexander was legitimate, but half Greek. This marriage gave Attalus, one of Philip’s generals, occasion to call into question the legitimacy of a half-Greek prince inheriting the Macedonian throne.
MURDER OF PHILIP (CONT.) Greek historian Diodorus tells us that Philip was killed by his ex-lover Pausonius (who was one of his guards) because Philip rejected him. Some suspect, however, that Alexander was behind the murder. The 2004 film Alexander directed by Oliver Stone puts the lays the blame at the feet of Olympias, Alexander’s mother so that her own son would become king and there would be no full-blood Macedonian heir. The film depicts Alexander was an innocent bystander. This occurs in 336 B.C. His son named king of Macedonia and becomes Alexander the Great
ALEXANDER DEFEATS PERSIA Alexander’s Early Life Tutored by Aristotle Inspired by the Iliad Military training Becomes king when 20 years old Destroys Thebes to curb rebellion
ALEXANDER DEFEATS PERSIA Invasion of Persia 334 B.C. Alexander invades Persia with a quick victory at Granicus River. Darius III, King of Persia, assembles an army of 50,000-75,000 men. Alexander defeats Persians again, forces King of Persia to flee.
ALEXANDER DEFEATS PERSIA Conquering the Persian Empire Alexander marches into Egypt and is crowned Pharaoh in 332 B.C. At Gaugamela in Mesopotamia, Alexander defeats the Persians again. Alexander captures cities of Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis Persepolis, the Persian capitol is burned to the ground. Ashes of Persepolis signal total destruction of the Persian Empire
ALEXANDER’S OTHER CONQUESTS Alexander in India Alexander fights his way across the deserts of Central Asia to India Alexander conquers Indus Valley area in 326 B.C. Reluctantly returns to Babylon and dies in 323 B.C.
ALEXANDER’S LEGACY Alexander melds Greek and Persian cultures. He takes a Persian wife. Empire becomes three kingdoms Macedonia, Greek city-states Egypt Old Persia, also known as the Seleucid kingdom
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