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31.1 postwar uncertainty

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  • 1. 31.1 Postwar Uncertainty The postwar period is one of loss and uncertainty but also one of invention, creativity, and new ideas.
  • 2. A New Revolution in Science • Impact of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity – Albert Einstein offered radically new ideas in field of physics – Theory of relativity— idea that space and time are not constant – New ideas make world seem more uncertain than before
  • 3. A New Revolution in Science • Influence of Freudian Psychology – Sigmund Freud— Austrian doctor with new ideas about the mind – Claims that human behavior is not based on reason
  • 4. Literature in the 1920s: The Lost Generation • Impact of the War – Suffering caused by World War I leads many to doubt old beliefs. – Many American younger postwar writers choosing to live in Europe are called the “Lost Generation,” a term used by Ernest Hemingway in his novel The Sun Also Rises, himself a member of the “lost generation.” The term was coined by his mentor, the writer Gertrude Stein.
  • 5. Lost Generation Writers • T.S. Elliot • Wrote The Waste Land, a poem.
  • 6. Lost Generation Writers • F. Scott Fitzgerald • Wrote the short story “Bernice Bobs Her Hair” as well as the novel The Great Gatsby.
  • 7. Lost Generation Writers • Ezra Pound – an American expatriate poet, critic and a major figure of the early modernist movement. – His best-known works include Ripostes (1912), Hugh Selwyn Mauberley (1920), and his unfinished 120-section epic, The Cantos (1917– 1969).
  • 8. Other Writers • Writers Reflect Society’s Concerns – Novels of Franz Kafka reflect uneasiness of postwar years – Novels of James Joyce reflect Freud’s ideas about the mind
  • 9. Literature in the 1920s • Thinkers React to Uncertainties – Philosophy of existentialism—no universal meaning to life – Friedrich Nietzsche (right) urges return to ancient heroic values .
  • 10. Literature in the 1920s • French philosopher Jean-Paul Satre (right) becomes a leading existentialist philosopher. • Sartre’s partner Simone De Beuvoir (right) is also a existentialist philosopher and feminist author.
  • 11. Sartre and Beuvoir
  • 12. Revolution in the Arts • Artists Rebel Against Tradition • Artists want to depict inner world of mind – Cubism transforms natural shapes into geometric forms – Dadaism—art that rejected reason and logic, prizing nonsense, anarchy, irrationality and intuition – Surrealism—art movement that links dreams with real life
  • 13. Cubism • Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, 1907. Considered to be a major step towards the founding of the Cubist movement
  • 14. Cubism • Robert Delaunay, Simultaneous Windows on the City, 1912, Hamburger Kunsthalle, an example of Abstract Cubism
  • 15. Cubism • Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas, Art Institute of Chicago
  • 16. Cubism • Pablo Picasso, Three Musicians (1921), Museum of Modern Art. Three Musicians is a classic example of Synthetic cubism.
  • 17. Dadaism • Hannah Höch, Cut with the Dada Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany, 1919, collage of pasted papers, 90x144 cm, Nationalgalerie, Sta atliche Museen zu Berlin
  • 18. Dadaism • Fountain is a 1917 work widely attributed to Marcel Duchamp. The scandalous work was a porcelain urinal, which was signed "R.Mutt" and titled Fountain.
  • 19. Dadaism • Raoul Hausmann ABCD (Self-portrait) A photomontage from 1923-24 • The techniques of Dadaism included – Collage – Photomantage – Assemblage – Readymades (manufactured goods the Dadaists considered art).
  • 20. Surrealism Salvador Dalí, The Persistence of Memory (1931), Museum of Modern Art
  • 21. Surrealism Max Ernst, The Elephant Celebes (1921), Tate, London
  • 22. Surrealism René Magritte's "This is not a pipe." The Treachery of Images 1928–29, Los Angeles County Museum of Art
  • 23. Composers Try New Styles • Composers move away from traditional styles – Jazz—musical style that captures age’s new freedom Louis Armstrong (above) and Ferdinand Joseph LaMothe a.k.a. “Jelly Role Morton” (left)
  • 24. The King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra photographed in Houston, Texas, January 1921.
  • 25. Society Challenges Convention • Women’s Roles Change – Women take on new roles during World War I – This work helps many win the right to vote – In 1920s, women adopt freer clothing, hairstyles • “Flappers” – Some women seek new careers
  • 26. Pictures of Flappers Actress Louise Brooks A flapper on board a ship
  • 27. Pictures of Flappers Violet Romer in a flapper dress, c. 1915 Clara Bow, c. 1921
  • 28. Pictures of Flappers Actress Alice Joyce Actress Norma Talmage
  • 29. Pictures of Flappers "Where there's smoke there's fire" by Russell Patterson, showing a fashionably dressed flapper in the 1920s
  • 30. Technological Advances Improve Life • The Automobile Alters Society – Cars improve after the war – Cars become less expensive – Increased auto use changes people’s lives 1925 Ford Model T touring sedan.
  • 31. Technological Advances Improve Life • Airplanes Transform Travel –Charles Lindbergh is first to fly alone across Atlantic
  • 32. Technological Advances Improve Life • Radio and Movies Dominate Popular Entertainment – In 1920s, commercial radio stations spread across U.S. – Motion pictures become major industry, art form
  • 33. Top Three Grossing Silent Films