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  • 1. A Flawed PeaceA Flawed Peace Chapter 29, Section 4Chapter 29, Section 4
  • 2. IntroductionIntroduction ► World War I was over. The killing had stopped.World War I was over. The killing had stopped. The terms of peace, however, still had to beThe terms of peace, however, still had to be worked out. Onworked out. On January 18, 1919January 18, 1919 , a conference, a conference to establish those terms began at theto establish those terms began at the Palace ofPalace of VersaillesVersailles, outside, outside ParisParis. Attending the talks,. Attending the talks, known as theknown as the Paris Peace ConferenceParis Peace Conference , were, were delegates representing 32 countries. For one year,delegates representing 32 countries. For one year, this conference would be the scene of vigorous,this conference would be the scene of vigorous, often bitter debate. The Allied powers struggled tooften bitter debate. The Allied powers struggled to solve their conflicting aims in various peacesolve their conflicting aims in various peace treaties.treaties.
  • 3. The Allies Meet and DebateThe Allies Meet and Debate
  • 4. Key Leaders Come TogetherKey Leaders Come Together ► This group of leadersThis group of leaders was known as thewas known as the BigBig FourFour dominated thedominated the peace talks in Paris atpeace talks in Paris at Versailles.Versailles.
  • 5. United StatesUnited States ► President WoodrowPresident Woodrow WilsonWilson
  • 6. FranceFrance ► Georges ClemenceauGeorges Clemenceau
  • 7. Great BritainGreat Britain ► Prime Minister, DavidPrime Minister, David Lloyd GeorgeLloyd George
  • 8. ItalyItaly ► Vittorio OrlandoVittorio Orlando
  • 9. Wilson’s Plan for PeaceWilson’s Plan for Peace ►Wilson proposesWilson proposes Fourteen PointsFourteen Points—an—an outline for lasting world peace.outline for lasting world peace. ►Calls for free trade and an end to alliancesCalls for free trade and an end to alliances and military buildupsand military buildups ►PromotesPromotes self-determinationself-determination —right of—right of people to govern their own nationpeople to govern their own nation ►Envisions international peace-keeping bodyEnvisions international peace-keeping body to settle world disputesto settle world disputes
  • 10. Fourteen PointsFourteen Points 1.1. End of secret treatiesEnd of secret treaties 2.2. Freedom of the seasFreedom of the seas 3.3. Free tradeFree trade 4.4. Arms reductionsArms reductions 5.5. Adjustment of colonial claimsAdjustment of colonial claims 6.6. Settlement of questionsSettlement of questions regarding Russian territoryregarding Russian territory 7.7. Restoration of BelgiumRestoration of Belgium 8.8. Restoration of France’sRestoration of France’s territories including Alsace-territories including Alsace- LorraineLorraine 9.9. Readjustment of Italy’sReadjustment of Italy’s bordersborders 10.10. Peoples of Austria-HungaryPeoples of Austria-Hungary given self-determinationgiven self-determination 11.11. Serbia given access to the seaSerbia given access to the sea and can join with other Balkanand can join with other Balkan states (Yugoslavia created).states (Yugoslavia created). 12.12. Turkish portion of OttomanTurkish portion of Ottoman empire sovereign, but otherempire sovereign, but other portions given self-portions given self- determination. Dardanellesdetermination. Dardanelles open to as shipping passageopen to as shipping passage to all nations.to all nations. 13.13. Independent PolandIndependent Poland 14.14. League of NationsLeague of Nations
  • 11. The Versailles TreatyThe Versailles Treaty ► Britain and France oppose Wilson’s ideas andBritain and France oppose Wilson’s ideas and want to punish Germany.want to punish Germany. ► Allies and Germany sign an accord—the Treaty ofAllies and Germany sign an accord—the Treaty of Versailles—in June 1919.Versailles—in June 1919.  Creates League of Nations—international organizationCreates League of Nations—international organization to keep peace.to keep peace.  Blames Germans for war, forces Germany to payBlames Germans for war, forces Germany to pay damages (reparations) to nations.damages (reparations) to nations.  League to rule German colonies until deemed ready forLeague to rule German colonies until deemed ready for independence.independence.
  • 12. A Troubled TreatyA Troubled Treaty
  • 13. The Creation of New NationsThe Creation of New Nations  The Versailles Treaty, other peace accordsThe Versailles Treaty, other peace accords change the look of Europechange the look of Europe  Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire allAustria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire all lose landslose lands  Former Ottoman lands in Southwest Asia turnFormer Ottoman lands in Southwest Asia turn intointo mandatesmandates  New countries in southeastern EuropeNew countries in southeastern Europe  Russia gives up land.Russia gives up land.
  • 14. Europe Pre-World War IEurope Pre-World War I
  • 15. New European Countries Post World War INew European Countries Post World War I Finland-land lost by Russia Estonia-land lost by Russia HungaryAustri a Romania-gained land Czechoslovakia Poland-restored from land lost by Germany and Russia Yugoslavia Latvia-land lost by Russia Lithuania-land lost by Russia
  • 16. Mandates in Africa and Middle EastMandates in Africa and Middle East 1.1. French Mandate of SyriaFrench Mandate of Syria 2.2. French Mandate ofFrench Mandate of LebanonLebanon 3.3. British Mandate ofBritish Mandate of PalestinePalestine 4.4. British Mandate ofBritish Mandate of TransjordanTransjordan 5.5. British Mandate of IraqBritish Mandate of Iraq 6.6. British TogolandBritish Togoland 7.7. French TogolandFrench Togoland 8.8. British CameroonBritish Cameroon 9.9. French CameroonFrench Cameroon 10.10. Ruanda-UrundiRuanda-Urundi 11.11. TanganyikaTanganyika 12.12. South-West AfricaSouth-West Africa
  • 17. ““A Peace Build on Quicksand”A Peace Build on Quicksand” ► Treaty of Versailles creates feelings of bitternessTreaty of Versailles creates feelings of bitterness on both sideson both sides ► German people feel bitter and betrayed afterGerman people feel bitter and betrayed after taking blame for wartaking blame for war ► America never ratifies Treaty of VersaillesAmerica never ratifies Treaty of Versailles  Many Americans oppose League of Nations andMany Americans oppose League of Nations and involvement with Europeinvolvement with Europe ► Some former colonies express anger over notSome former colonies express anger over not winning independencewinning independence ► Japan, Italy criticize agreement; gain less landJapan, Italy criticize agreement; gain less land than they wantthan they want