As the Mughal Empire declined, Britainseizes Indian territory and soon itcontrols almost the whole subcontinent.27.4 BRITISH IMPERIALISM IN INDIA
QUESTIONS TO WRITE FIRST!1. Looking at the map (India Under British Rule: 1805-1886), what were the first areas the Britishcame to control? Why was that so?2. Who were the sepoys?3. What economic policies did the British have in India?4. What positive things did the British do for India?5. Other than India, what other colonies did the British hold in Asia and Southeast Asia?6. Name two underlying causes, and the one immediate cause of the Sepoy Mutiny.7. What was Mangal Pandey’s role in the Mutiny?8. What atrocities were committed by the sepoys against the British in the mutiny? (video)9. What was the purpose of the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League?10. What kinds of reforms did Ram Mohun Roy want to make? What Indian cultural practices did heoppose?
• British East IndiaCompany rules Indiauntil the 1850s.• Company has its ownarmy led by Britishofficers• Army is staffed bysepoys—Indiansoldiers.EAST INDIA COMPANY DOMINATESFlag of the British East India Company(right); A painting showing a sowar(sepoy), 6th Madras Light Cavalry ofBritish India. Circa 1845 (below)
• India is Britain’s mostvaluable colony, or“jewel in the crown.”• Forced to produce rawmaterials for Britishmanufacturing• Also forced to buyBritish goodsBRITAIN’S JEWEL IN THE CROWN”
• Railroads movecash crops andgoods faster• Trade in specificcrops is tied tointernationaleventsBRITISH TRANSPORT TRADE GOODS
IMPACT OF COLONIALISM• British hold much of political and economic power• Cash crops result in loss of self-sufficiency and causefamine• Indian life disrupted by missionaries and racist attitudes• British modernize India’s economy, improve publichealth
SEPOY MUTINY: UNDERLYING AND IMMEDIATE CAUSES• Underlying Causes• Religious Frictions: Some British officers actively attempted to convert the sepoys toChristianity although the British East India Company discouraged it. The sepoys resentedimposing Christianity and Christian laws in India.• Doctrine of the Lapse: The Company automatically seized land from a feudal leader whodied without leaving an heir.• Unfair justice system toward Indians. British officers accused of crimes against Indianswere granted multiple appeals and advantages when being tried.• High Caste Sepoys: The Bengal Army of sepoys were recruited from a higher caste ofIndians. Therefore, if the high caste sepoys were considered to be "polluted", they wouldhave to expend considerable sums of money on ritual purification before being acceptedback into society.• Immediate Cause• The Enfield Rifle: It required the solder to bite the cartridge and hold the ball in his mouthwhen loading the rifle. The belief that the cartridge was lubricated with animal fat (eitherpork or beef) offended both Muslims and Hindus.
The old gun: an India pattern smoothbore Brown Bess Musket. Notice thisis a flintlock musket.1853 Enfield Rifle-Musket. Notice this gun uses a percussion cap ratherthan a flint lock.
SEPOY MUTINY• Sepoys refuse to use cartridges of new rifles forreligious reasons.• Many Sepoys are jailed; others start the Sepoy Mutinyagainst the British• Many Indians, especially Sikhs, remain loyal to theBritish• British put down the rebellion and take direct commandof India.
• Mangal Pandey: The Rising isan Indian movie based on the lifeof Mangal Pandey, an Indiansoldier who is known for his rolein the Indian Mutiny of 1857.• In March of 1857 Pandey gave aspeech to his fellow sepoysencouraging them to mutiny. Hethen attacked a British officer. Hewas executed for these actionsthe following month. In hisdefense he claimed he did notknow what he was doing,admitting he was under theinfluence of cannabis and opium.BOLLYWOOD FILM—MANGAL PANDEY: THE RISING
THE RISING, A BOLLYWOOD FILM TELLS THESTORY FROM THE INDIAN SIDE.
THE BRITISH RAJ• Raj—refers to British rule after India came underthe British crown.• Uprising increases distrust between British andIndians.
• Calls for Reforms• In 1800s, Ram Mohun Royleads modernizationmovement• Many Indians adopt westernways and call for socialreforms• Indians resent being second-class citizens in their owncountry.NATIONALISM SURFACES IN INDIA
NATIONALISM SURFACES IN INDIA• Nationalist Groups Form• Indian National Congress and MuslimLeague form• Nationalists angered by partition ofBengal and the pressure forces Britain todivide it differently