QUESTIONS: WRITE THESE FIRST—LEAVE ANSWER SPACE!1. Define “imperialism.”2. Name two things that kept Europeans outof Africa before the Industrial Revolution.3. Who was David Livingstone?4. Who was Henry Stanley?5. Who was Leopold II, and what did he do tothe Congo?
Questions: continued6. What were the forces driving Europeanimperialism?7. What is “social Darwinism”?8. How did European technology helpdominate Africa? Give two examples.9. Who was Shaka?10. Name three of Shaka’s military innovationsor strategies.
Questions: continued11. What was the Anglo-Zulu War?12. What happened at the Battle ofIsandlwana?13. What happened at Rorke’s Drift?14. THINKING QUESTION: Why do you thinkthe British emphasized the victory atRorke’s Drift over Isandlwana the sameday?
Questions: continued15. Who were the Boers?16. What was The Great Trek?17. Why were the British trying to get control of Boerterritory?18. What tactics did the Boer’s use against the British?19. What tactics did the British use against the Boers?20. From the illustrations of the casualties in the Boer War,what tactics were used that were later used in WorldWar I?
Setting the Stage Industrialization fueled the interest ofEuropean countries in Africa These nations looked to Africa as a sourcefor raw materials. Colonial powers seized vast area of Africaduring the 19thand 20thcenturies. The seizure of a country or territory by astronger country is called imperialism.
Africa Before European Domination In the mid-1800s before European domination Africanpeoples were divided into hundreds of ethnic and linguisticgroups. Europeans had contact with sub-Saharan peoples, but largeAfrican armies kept Europeans out of Africa for 400 years. European travel was hindered by difficult rivers and Africandiseases like malaria. Nations Compete for Overseas Empires Europeans who did penetrate the interior of Africa wereexplorers, missionaries, or humanitarians who opposed theslave trade. Travel books, newspapers, and magazines encouraged interestin Africa
Stanley andLivingstone David Livingstone wasa Scottish missionarywho traveled deep intoAfrica in the late1860s anddisappeared. Many people thoughtLivingstone was dead.
Stanley andLivingstone The New York Herald hiredHenry Stanley to travel toAfrica to find Livingstone.Stanley was given an unlimitedamount of money for thisexpedition. When Stanley found Dr.Livingstone he is reported tohave said this famous greeting,“Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”,which made headlines aroundthe world.
The Congo Sparks Interest Stanley set out to exploreAfrica and trace theCongo. King Leopold II ofBelgium commissionedStanley to help himobtain land in the Congo. Stanley signed treatieswith local chiefs whogave Leopold II controlover these lands.
Leopold’s Abuse of the Congo Leopold II claimed that his reason for control was toabolish the slave trade. He licensed companies to harvest sap from rubbertrees. Leopold’s private army mutilated people who would notharvest rubber. Millions of people from the Congo died doing this. The Belgian government took control of the colony fromLeopold II as a result. The French were alarmed byBelgium taking control of this country and beganclaiming parts of Africa. Soon other countries followed.
Forces Driving Imperialism Industrial Revolution—search for new marketsand raw materials Belief in European Superiority National pride—empire as the measure of nationalgreatness Racism, the superiority of one race over another wasexpressed in Social Darwinism. This applied Darwin’s theory of naturalselection to society. The phrase “survival of the fittest”comes from Social Darwinism. Duty to bring civilization and progress to the “uncivilized” isalso prompted by racism and Social Darwinism.
Factors Promoting Imperialism inAfrica European technological superiority Superior arms—Maxim gun (1884)—firstautomatic machine gun Means to control an empire Steam engine, railroads, cables, and steam ships Medical advances-development of quinine, ananti-malaria drug, in 1829. Rival groups within Africa gave Europeans anadvantage.
The Division of Africa Diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) werediscovered in South Africa. Berlin Conference (1884-85): 14 Europeannations agreed to lay down rules for the divisionof Africa. No African ruler was invited to thisconference. Demand of Raw Materials: Africa was rich inmineral resources like copper and tin in theCongo and gold and diamonds in South Africa. Cash crop plantations for peanuts, palm oil,cocoa, and rubber were also developed.
Three Groups Clash over South Africa Zulus Fight the British Around 1816, Shaka,used highly disciplinedwarriors and good militaryorganization to create alarge centralized Zulustate.
Shaka’s Military Innovations Short spear was the principal weapon requiringclose combat. Large shield was introduced. Warriors went bare foot so that the soles of thefeet would be toughened. Constant drilling to keep warriors physically fit. Boys six and over were apprentice warriors whocarried rations. They were highly organized. Regiments were given various tasks based on theage range of the men making up the regiment. “Buffalo horn formation” is credited to Shaka.
Anglo-Zulu War Shaka’s successorscould not keeppower againstsuperior Britisharms. In 1879 the Anglo-Zulu War broke out.
vs.Army of the United KingdomrifletechnologyArmy of the Zulu Kingdomshield and spearclose combat
Anglo-Zulu War On January 22,1879, Zuluking Cetshwayo (picturedright) attacked the Britishat the Battle of Isandlwanawith an army of 20,000Zulus against 850 Britishsoldiers and 450 Africansin British service. Only 50enlisted British soldiersand 5 officers escaped.
Rorke’s Drift The Battle of Rorke’s Drift missionstation occurred the same day andthe next (22-23 Jan 1879),immediately following the Britishdefeat at Isandlwana. However,139 British soldiers successfullydefended their garrison against aforce of 5,000 Zulus. The 1964 filmZulu is a depiction of this battle.
Artists depiction of the Battle ofRorke’s Drift, 22-23 January 1879.
Boers and the British Settle the Cape The first Europeans to settle South Africa werethe Dutch. They later became known as theBoers (also called Afrikaners). British control of South Africa caused a clashbetween the Boers and British. Boers move north on the Great Trek, but clashwith Zulus.
The Boer Wars After the discovery ofdiamonds and gold inSouth Africa, the Boerstried to keep outsiderscoming into South Africafrom gaining politicalrights. The First Boer War wasbriefly fought in 1880-81and successfully kept theBritish from annexing Boerterritory called Transvaal(in orange).
Second Boer War The Second Boer War was In1899, the Boers end up takingup arms against the British. This is the first “total war”. TheBoers use commando raidsand guerilla tactics against theBritish. The British burn Boerfarms and imprison womenand children in concentrationcamps. The British finally won thiswar. In 1910 the BoerRepublic joins the Union ofSouth Africa.
British casualties after the Battle of Spion Kop,24 January 1900. The Battle resulted in a Britishdefeat.
Dead British soldiers lying in trenchesafter the Battle of Spion Kop, nearLadysmith, Natal
This photo shows a section of the Britishgraves at the site of the Battle ofSpioenkop. Many of the fallen soldierswere buried in the trenches where theydied. These graves therefore give anindication of where the trenches werelocated at the time of the battleThis photo shows a section of the Britishgraves at the site of the Battle ofSpioenkop. Many of the fallen soldierswere buried in the trenches where theydied. These graves therefore give anindication of where the trenches werelocated at the time of the battle
A survivingblockhouse inSouth Africa.Blockhouses wereconstructed by theBritish to securesupply routes fromBoer raids duringthe warA survivingblockhouse inSouth Africa.Blockhouses wereconstructed by theBritish to securesupply routes fromBoer raids duringthe war
Christiaan De Wet(pictured) wasconsidered the mostformidable leader of theBoer guerrillas. Hesuccessfully evadedcapture on numerousoccasions and was laterinvolved in thenegotiations for a peacesettlementChristiaan De Wet(pictured) wasconsidered the mostformidable leader of theBoer guerrillas. Hesuccessfully evadedcapture on numerousoccasions and was laterinvolved in thenegotiations for a peacesettlement
“THE WHITE MAN’S BURDEN”BY RUDYARD KIPLING (1899)Appendix
1 Take up the White Mans burden—Send forth the best ye breed--Go bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives need;To wait in heavy harness,On fluttered folk and wild--Your new-caught, sullen peoples,Half-devil and half-child.
2 Take up the White Mans burden--In patience to abide,To veil the threat of terrorAnd check the show of pride;By open speech and simple,An hundred times made plainTo seek anothers profit,And work anothers gain.
3 Take up the White Mans burden--The savage wars of peace--Fill full the mouth of FamineAnd bid the sickness cease;And when your goal is nearestThe end for others sought,Watch sloth and heathen FollyBring all your hopes to nought.
4 Take up the White Mans burden--No tawdry rule of kings,But toil of serf and sweeper--The tale of common things.The ports ye shall not enter,The roads ye shall not tread,Go mark them with your living,And mark them with your dead.
5 Take up the White Mans burden--And reap his old reward:The blame of those ye better,The hate of those ye guard--The cry of hosts ye humour(Ah, slowly!) toward the light:--"Why brought he us from bondage,Our loved Egyptian night?"
6 Take up the White Mans burden--Ye dare not stoop to less--Nor call too loud on FreedomTo cloke your weariness;By all ye cry or whisper,By all ye leave or do,The silent, sullen peoplesShall weigh your gods and you.
7 Take up the White Mans burden--Have done with childish days--The lightly proferred laurel,The easy, ungrudged praise.Comes now, to search your manhoodThrough all the thankless yearsCold, edged with dear-bought wisdom,The judgment of your peers!
How do you interpret Kipling’s poem? Is he being Eurocentric and asserting thatEuropean culture has a duty to bring civilization tothe rest of the world? Is he using satire against notions of imperialismand making fun of these ideas of the superiority ofthe white race? Here are some ways political cartoons and evenadvertisements depicted the so called “whiteman’s burden.”
political cartoon from The Journal, Detroit, 1923 about “The White Man’s Burden”
An advertisement for Pears’Soap uses a racistmessage: “The first steptowards lightening isthrough teaching the virtuesof cleanliness” theadvertisement asserts.“Pears’ Soap is a potentfactor in brightening thedark corners of the earth ascivilization advances, whileamongst the cultured of allnations it holds the highestplace—it is the ideal toiletsoap.”