25.4 Reforming theIndustrial WorldThe Industrial Revolutionleads to economic, social,and political reforms.
The Philosophers ofIndustrialization• Laissez-faire Economics• Laissez faire—economic policy of notinterfering with businesses• Originates with Enlightenment economicphilosophers• Adam Smith—defender of free markets,author of The Wealth of Nations• Believes economic liberty guaranteeseconomic progress• Economic natural laws—self interest,competition, supply and demand
The Philosophers ofIndustrialization• The Economists of Capitalism• Thomas Malthus and David Ricardoboost laissez-faire capitalism• Capitalism—system of privately ownedbusinesses seeking profits• Malthus think populations grow fasterthan food supply• Wars and epidemics kill off extra peopleor misery and poverty result• Ricardo envisions a permanent, poorunderclass providing cheap labor
The Rise of Socialism• Utilitarianism• Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarianism—judge things by their usefulness• John Stuart Mill favors regulationto help workers and spread wealth• Utopian Ideas• Robert Owen improves workers’conditions, rents cheap housing• In 1824, Own founds utopiancommunity, New Harmony, Indiana
The Rise of Socialism• Socialism—factors ofproduction are owned andoperated by the state for thepeople.• Socialists think governmentcontrol can end poverty, bringequality
Marxism: RadicalSocialism• Marxism’s Prophets• Karl Marx—German journalistproposes a radical socialism,Marxism• Friedrich Engels—German whosefather owns a Manchester textilemill
Marxism: RadicalSocialism• The Communist Manifesto• Marx and Engels believe society isdivided into warring classes• Capitalism helps “haves,” theemployers known as thebourgeoise• Hurts “Have-nots,” The workersknown as the proletariat• Marx, Engels predict the workerswill overthrow the owners
Marxism: RadicalSocialism• The Future According to Marx• Marx believes that capitalism willeventually destroy itself• Inequality would cause workers torevolt, seize factories and mills• Communism—society where people own,share the means of production• Marx’s ideas later take root in Russia,China, and Cuba• Time has shown that society is notcontrolled by economic forces alone.
Labor Unions andReform Laws• Unionization• Unions—associations formed bylaborers to work for change• Unions negotiate for better pay,conditions with employers• Sometimes they strike—call awork stoppage—to pressureowners• Skill workers are first to formunions• Union goals were higher wages,
Labor Unions andReform Laws• Reform Laws• British, U.S. laws passed to stopworst abuses of industrialization• 1842 Mines Act in Britain stopswomen, children workingunderground• In 1847, workday for women,children limited to 10 hours inBritain• U.S. ends child labor, sets
The Reform MovementSpreads• The Abolition of Slavery• In 1833, reformers help endslavery in British empire• Slavery ends in the U.S. in 1865;ends by 1888 in the rest of theAmericas• The Fight for Women’s Rights• Women pursue economic andsocial rights as early as 1848• International Council for Womenfounded in 1888; worldwide
The Reform MovementSpreads• Reforms Spread to Many Areasof Life• Reformers establish free publicschools in Europe in late 1800s• Public schools common in U.S. bythe 1850s; prison reform alsosought