25.1 The Beginnings of25.1 The Beginnings ofIndustrializationIndustrializationThe Industrial Revolution starts inThe Industrial Revolution starts inEngland and soon spreads toEngland and soon spreads toother countries.other countries.
Charles Dickens: From Poorhouse to MansionCharles Dickens: From Poorhouse to Mansion English authorEnglish authorCharles DickensCharles Dickens(1812-1870)(1812-1870)
Charles Dickens: From Poorhouse to MansionCharles Dickens: From Poorhouse to Mansion Original cover ofOriginal cover of TheThePosthumous PapersPosthumous Papersof the Pickwick Clubof the Pickwick Club(commonly known as(commonly known asThe PickwickThe PickwickPapersPapers), the first), the firstnovel by Charlesnovel by CharlesDickens.Dickens.
Charles Dickens: From Poorhouse to MansionCharles Dickens: From Poorhouse to Mansion FirstFirsteditioneditionfront piecefront pieceofof AAChristmasChristmasCarolCarol(1843)(1843)
FrontFrontpiece ofpiece ofthe firstthe firstedition ofedition ofOliverOliverTwistTwist(1838).(1838).Charles Dickens: From Poorhouse to MansionCharles Dickens: From Poorhouse to Mansion
Charles Dickens: From Poorhouse to MansionCharles Dickens: From Poorhouse to Mansion First Edition cover ofFirst Edition cover ofDavid CopperfieldDavid Copperfield(1850)(1850)
Gads Hill Place: Country Home ofGads Hill Place: Country Home ofCharles DickensCharles DickensDickens family on theirporch at Gads Hill Place
Industrial Revolution Begins in BritainIndustrial Revolution Begins in Britain New Ways of WorkingNew Ways of WorkingIndustrial RevolutionIndustrial Revolution—greatly increases—greatly increasesoutput of machine-made goods.output of machine-made goods.Revolution begins in England in the middleRevolution begins in England in the middle1700s.1700s.
Industrial Revolution Begins in BritainIndustrial Revolution Begins in Britain The Agricultural Revolution Paves theThe Agricultural Revolution Paves theWayWayEnclosuresEnclosures—large farm fields enclosed by—large farm fields enclosed byfences or hedgesfences or hedgesWealthy landowners buy, enclose land onceWealthy landowners buy, enclose land onceowned by village farmers.owned by village farmers.Enclosures allowed experimentation with newEnclosures allowed experimentation with newagricultural methodsagricultural methods
Industrial Revolution Begins in BritainIndustrial Revolution Begins in Britain Rotating CropsRotating CropsCrop rotationCrop rotation——switching crops eachswitching crops eachyear to avoid depletingyear to avoid depletingsoilsoilLivestock breedersLivestock breedersallow only the best toallow only the best tobreed, improve foodbreed, improve foodsupply.supply.Satellite image of rotated crops inKansas in June 2001
Industrial Revolution Begins in BritainIndustrial Revolution Begins in Britain Why the Industrial Revolution Began inWhy the Industrial Revolution Began inEnglandEnglandIndustrializationIndustrialization—move to machine—move to machineproduction of goodsproduction of goodsBritain has natural resources—coal, iron,Britain has natural resources—coal, iron,rivers, harborsrivers, harborsExpanding economy in Britain encouragesExpanding economy in Britain encouragesinvestmentinvestmentBritain has all needed factors of production—Britain has all needed factors of production—land, labor, capitalland, labor, capital
Inventions Spur IndustrializationInventions Spur Industrialization Changes in theChanges in theTextile IndustryTextile IndustryWeavers workWeavers workfaster withfaster withflying shuttlesflying shuttlesandand spinningspinningjenniesjenniesWater frameWater frameuses wateruses waterpower to drivepower to drivespinning wheelsspinning wheels
““Carding” is a mechanical process that breaks upCarding” is a mechanical process that breaks uplocks and unorganized clumps of fiber and then alignslocks and unorganized clumps of fiber and then alignsthe individual fibers so that they are more or lessthe individual fibers so that they are more or lessparallel with each other. This enabled them to be moreparallel with each other. This enabled them to be moreeasily spun into thread. The old method was done byeasily spun into thread. The old method was done byhand using these tools.hand using these tools.cardingcardingmachine-machine-replaces thereplaces thehand processhand processof combing outof combing outthe fibersthe fibersbefore theybefore theycan be spuncan be spuninto yarn orinto yarn orthread.thread.
Inventions Spur IndustrializationInventions Spur IndustrializationPower loomPower loom, and, and spinning mulespinning mule (next(nextslide) speed up production, improveslide) speed up production, improvequality.quality.
Inventions Spur IndustrializationInventions Spur IndustrializationCotton ginCotton ginboostsboostsAmericanAmericancottoncottonproductionproductionto meetto meetBritishBritishdemanddemand"The First Cotton Gin" - An engraving"The First Cotton Gin" - An engravingfromfrom Harpers MagazineHarpers Magazine, 1869. This, 1869. Thiscarving depicts a roller gin, whichcarving depicts a roller gin, whichpreceded Whitneys invention.preceded Whitneys invention.
James WattImprovements in TransportationImprovements in Transportation Watt’s Steam EngineWatt’s Steam EngineNeed for cheap, convenientNeed for cheap, convenientpower spurs developmentpower spurs developmentof steam engineof steam engineJames Watt improvesJames Watt improvessteam engine, financed bysteam engine, financed byMatthew BoultonMatthew BoultonBoulton—anBoulton—an entrepreneurentrepreneur—organizes, manages,—organizes, manages,takes business risks.takes business risks.Matthew Boulton
Steam enginedesigned byBoulton & Watt.Engraving of a1784 engine.Reproduction of James Watts steam engine
Improvements in TransportationImprovements in Transportation Water TransportationWater TransportationRobert Fulton builds firstRobert Fulton builds firststeamboat, the Clermont,steamboat, the Clermont,in 1807in 1807England’s water transportEngland’s water transportimproved by system ofimproved by system ofcanalscanals
Fulton’s North River Steamboat as it appeared in 1807, later named Clermont
Improvements in TransportationImprovements in Transportation Road TransportationRoad TransportationBritish roads areBritish roads areimproved;improved;companies operatecompanies operatethem as toll roads.them as toll roads.These were calledThese were called“turnpike trusts”.“turnpike trusts”.The A4 is ahistoric majorroad in England,portions ofwhich areknown as theGreat WestRoad and BathRoad.
Improvements in TransportationImprovements in TransportationBy the early Victorian periodBy the early Victorian periodtoll gates were perceived astoll gates were perceived asan impediment to free trade.an impediment to free trade.The multitude of small trustsThe multitude of small trustswere frequently charged withwere frequently charged withbeing inefficient in use ofbeing inefficient in use ofresources and potentiallyresources and potentiallysuffered from pettysuffered from pettycorruption.corruption.The railway era speltThe railway era speltdisaster for most turnpikedisaster for most turnpiketrusts.trusts.The Round House (Old TollHouse) at Stanton Drew
The Railway Age BeginsThe Railway Age Begins Steam-DrivenSteam-DrivenLocomotivesLocomotivesInIn 1804, Richard1804, RichardTrevithickTrevithick builds firstbuilds firststeam-drivensteam-drivenlocomotivelocomotive
Trevithicks No. 14 engine, built by Hazledine and Co., Bridgnorth, about 1804, andillustrated after being rescued circa 1885; from Scientific American Supplement,Vol. XIX, No. 470, January 3, 1885.
The Coalbrookdale company then built a rail locomotive for him, but little isknown about it, including whether or not it actually ran.
Trevithicks 1804 locomotive. This full-scale replica of steam-powered railwaylocomotive is in the National Waterfront Museum, Swansea
The Railway Age BeginsThe Railway Age Begins Sir Topham HattSir Topham Hatt(nicknamed “The Fat(nicknamed “The FatController”) was a famousController”) was a famousrailway administrator onrailway administrator onthe Island of Sodorthe Island of Sodorlocated between Englandlocated between Englandand the Isle of Mann.and the Isle of Mann.Called by Thomas (theCalled by Thomas (theTank Engine) the fatherTank Engine) the fatherof the Sodor Railway!of the Sodor Railway!
Attention: The previous two slidesAttention: The previous two slideswere a joke. The Sir Topham Hattwere a joke. The Sir Topham Hattand the Isle of Sodor are fictional!and the Isle of Sodor are fictional!April Fool!April Fool!
The Railway Age BeginsThe Railway Age BeginsIn 1825, GeorgeIn 1825, GeorgeStephenson buildsStephenson buildsworlds first railroadworlds first railroadline.line.He is called theHe is called the“Father of Railways”.“Father of Railways”.His rail gauge of 4 feetHis rail gauge of 4 feet8½ inches (1,4358½ inches (1,435mm), sometimesmm), sometimescalled "Stephensoncalled "Stephensongauge", is the worldsgauge", is the worldsstandard gauge.standard gauge.
The Railway Age BeginsThe Railway Age BeginsLiverpool-Manchester RailroadLiverpool-Manchester RailroadEntrepreneurs build railroadEntrepreneurs build railroadfrom Liverpool to Manchesterfrom Liverpool to Manchester
The Railway Age BeginsThe Railway Age BeginsStephenson’sStephenson’s RocketRocket acknowledged as theacknowledged as thebest locomotive (1829)best locomotive (1829)
A cutaway view of the cylinder and steam valve of the replica Rocket
The Railway Age BeginsThe Railway Age Begins Railroads Revolutionize Life in BritainRailroads Revolutionize Life in BritainRailroads spur industrial growth, create jobsRailroads spur industrial growth, create jobsCheaper transportation boosts manyCheaper transportation boosts manyindustries; people move to citiesindustries; people move to cities