24.3 Nationalism24.3 NationalismNationalism contributes to theNationalism contributes to theformation of two new nations andformation of two new nations anda new political order in Europea new political order in Europe
Nationalism: A Force for Unity or DisunityNationalism: A Force for Unity or Disunity Two Views of NationalismTwo Views of NationalismNationalists use their common bonds to buildNationalists use their common bonds to buildnation-statesnation-statesRulers eventually use nationalism to unifyRulers eventually use nationalism to unifytheir subjectstheir subjectsThree different types of nationalistThree different types of nationalistmovements:movements:• unification merges culturally similar landsunification merges culturally similar lands• separation splits off culturally distinct groupsseparation splits off culturally distinct groups• state-building binds separate cultures into onestate-building binds separate cultures into one
Nationalism Shakes Aging EmpiresNationalism Shakes Aging Empires The Breakup of theThe Breakup of theAustrian EmpireAustrian EmpireAustria includesAustria includespeople from manypeople from manyethnic groupsethnic groups1866 defeat in Austro-1866 defeat in Austro-Prussian War (SevenPrussian War (SevenWeeks War) andWeeks War) andHungarian nationalismHungarian nationalismforces emperor to splitforces emperor to splitthe empire into Austriathe empire into Austriaand Hungaryand Hungary• still ruled by emperorstill ruled by emperorFlag of Austria-Hungaryrepresenting two kingdoms,but ruled by one emperor.This was a concession toHungarian nationalism.
Nationalism Shakes Aging EmpiresNationalism Shakes Aging Empires The Russia Empire CrumblesThe Russia Empire CrumblesAfter 370 years, Russian czars begin losingAfter 370 years, Russian czars begin losingcontrol over their empirecontrol over their empireRussificationRussification—forcing other peoples to adopt—forcing other peoples to adoptRussian cultureRussian culture• policy further disunites Russia, strengthens ethnicpolicy further disunites Russia, strengthens ethnicnationalismnationalism
Nationalism Shakes Aging EmpiresNationalism Shakes Aging Empires The Ottoman Empire WeakensThe Ottoman Empire WeakensInternal tensions among ethnic groupsInternal tensions among ethnic groupsweakens the empire.weakens the empire.Rulers grant citizenship to all groups,Rulers grant citizenship to all groups,outraging Turks.outraging Turks.
Case Study: ItalyCase Study: Italy Cavour Unites ItalyCavour Unites ItalyItaly forms territoryItaly forms territoryfrom crumblingfrom crumblingempiresempires1815-1848 Italians1815-1848 Italianswant independencewant independencefrom foreign rulersfrom foreign rulers
Case Study: ItalyCase Study: Italy Cavour Leads ItalianCavour Leads ItalianUnificationUnificationCamillo di CavourCamillo di Cavour——prime minister of theprime minister of theKingdom of Sardinia inKingdom of Sardinia in18521852Gets French help toGets French help towin control of Austrian-win control of Austrian-controlled Italian landcontrolled Italian land
Case Study: ItalyCase Study: Italy Garibaldi Brings UnityGaribaldi Brings UnityGiuseppe GaribaldiGiuseppe Garibaldi——leads nationalists wholeads nationalists whoconquer southern Italyconquer southern ItalyCavour convinces GaribaldiCavour convinces Garibaldito unite southern Italy withto unite southern Italy withSardiniaSardiniaGaribaldi steps aside,Garibaldi steps aside,allowing the king ofallowing the king ofSardinia to ruleSardinia to ruleControl of Venetia andControl of Venetia andPapal States finally unitesPapal States finally unitesItalyItaly
Case Study: GermanyCase Study: Germany Bismarck Unites GermanyBismarck Unites GermanyBeginning in 1815, thirty-nine German statesBeginning in 1815, thirty-nine German statesform the German Confederationform the German Confederation Prussia Leads German UnificationPrussia Leads German UnificationPrussia has advantages that help it to unifyPrussia has advantages that help it to unifyGermanyGermany• mainly German populationmainly German population• powerful armypowerful army• creation of liberal constitutioncreation of liberal constitution
Case Study: GermanyCase Study: Germany Bismarck Takes ControlBismarck Takes ControlJunkersJunkers—conservative—conservativewealthy landowners—wealthy landowners—support Prussian Wilhelm Isupport Prussian Wilhelm IJunker realpolitik masterJunker realpolitik masterOtto von BismarckOtto von Bismarckbecomes prime ministerbecomes prime ministerRealpolitikRealpolitik—power politics—power politicswithout room for idealismwithout room for idealismBismarck defies PrussianBismarck defies Prussianparliamentparliament
Case Study: GermanyCase Study: Germany Prussia ExpandsPrussia ExpandsPrussia and Austria fight Denmark, gain twoPrussia and Austria fight Denmark, gain twoprovincesprovincesQuick victory makes other German nationsQuick victory makes other German nationsrespect Prussiarespect Prussia
Case Study: GermanyCase Study: Germany Seven Weeks WarSeven Weeks WarBismarck creates a border dispute withBismarck creates a border dispute withAustria to provoke a warAustria to provoke a warPrussia seizes Austrian territory, northernPrussia seizes Austrian territory, northernGermanyGermanyEastern and western parts of PrussianEastern and western parts of Prussiankingdom are joined for the first time.kingdom are joined for the first time.
Case Study: GermanyCase Study: Germany The Franco-Prussian WarThe Franco-Prussian WarBismarck provokes war with France to uniteBismarck provokes war with France to uniteall Germansall GermansWilhelm is crownedWilhelm is crowned KaiserKaiser—emperor of a—emperor of aunited Germany—at Versaillesunited Germany—at VersaillesBismarck creates a Germany united underBismarck creates a Germany united underPrussian dominance.Prussian dominance.
To some Germans, Bismarck was the greatest andnoblest of Germany’s statesmen. They say he almostsinglehandedly unified the nation and raised it togreatness. To others, he was nothing but a deviouspolitician who abused his powers and led Germany intodictatorship.His speeches, letters, and memoirs show him to beboth crafty and deeply religious. At one moment, hecould declare, “It is the destiny of the weak to bedevoured by the strong.” At another moment he mightclaim, “We Germans shall never wage aggressive war,ambitious war, a war of conquest.”
A Shift in PowerA Shift in Power Balance Is LostBalance Is LostIn 1815 the Congress of Vienna established fiveIn 1815 the Congress of Vienna established fivepowers in Europe:powers in Europe:• AustriaAustria• PrussiaPrussia• BritainBritain• FranceFrance• RussiaRussiaBy 1871, Britain and Prussia (now Germany) haveBy 1871, Britain and Prussia (now Germany) havegained much powergained much powerAustria and Russia are weaker militarily andAustria and Russia are weaker militarily andeconomicallyeconomically