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24.3 nationalism

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  • 1. 24.3 Nationalism24.3 NationalismNationalism contributes to theNationalism contributes to theformation of two new nations andformation of two new nations anda new political order in Europea new political order in Europe
  • 2. Nationalism: A Force for Unity or DisunityNationalism: A Force for Unity or Disunity Two Views of NationalismTwo Views of NationalismNationalists use their common bonds to buildNationalists use their common bonds to buildnation-statesnation-statesRulers eventually use nationalism to unifyRulers eventually use nationalism to unifytheir subjectstheir subjectsThree different types of nationalistThree different types of nationalistmovements:movements:• unification merges culturally similar landsunification merges culturally similar lands• separation splits off culturally distinct groupsseparation splits off culturally distinct groups• state-building binds separate cultures into onestate-building binds separate cultures into one
  • 3. Nationalism Shakes Aging EmpiresNationalism Shakes Aging Empires The Breakup of theThe Breakup of theAustrian EmpireAustrian EmpireAustria includesAustria includespeople from manypeople from manyethnic groupsethnic groups1866 defeat in Austro-1866 defeat in Austro-Prussian War (SevenPrussian War (SevenWeeks War) andWeeks War) andHungarian nationalismHungarian nationalismforces emperor to splitforces emperor to splitthe empire into Austriathe empire into Austriaand Hungaryand Hungary• still ruled by emperorstill ruled by emperorFlag of Austria-Hungaryrepresenting two kingdoms,but ruled by one emperor.This was a concession toHungarian nationalism.
  • 4. Nationalism Shakes Aging EmpiresNationalism Shakes Aging Empires The Russia Empire CrumblesThe Russia Empire CrumblesAfter 370 years, Russian czars begin losingAfter 370 years, Russian czars begin losingcontrol over their empirecontrol over their empireRussificationRussification—forcing other peoples to adopt—forcing other peoples to adoptRussian cultureRussian culture• policy further disunites Russia, strengthens ethnicpolicy further disunites Russia, strengthens ethnicnationalismnationalism
  • 5. Nationalism Shakes Aging EmpiresNationalism Shakes Aging Empires The Ottoman Empire WeakensThe Ottoman Empire WeakensInternal tensions among ethnic groupsInternal tensions among ethnic groupsweakens the empire.weakens the empire.Rulers grant citizenship to all groups,Rulers grant citizenship to all groups,outraging Turks.outraging Turks.
  • 6. Case Study: ItalyCase Study: Italy Cavour Unites ItalyCavour Unites ItalyItaly forms territoryItaly forms territoryfrom crumblingfrom crumblingempiresempires1815-1848 Italians1815-1848 Italianswant independencewant independencefrom foreign rulersfrom foreign rulers
  • 7. Case Study: ItalyCase Study: Italy Cavour Leads ItalianCavour Leads ItalianUnificationUnificationCamillo di CavourCamillo di Cavour——prime minister of theprime minister of theKingdom of Sardinia inKingdom of Sardinia in18521852Gets French help toGets French help towin control of Austrian-win control of Austrian-controlled Italian landcontrolled Italian land
  • 8. Case Study: ItalyCase Study: Italy Garibaldi Brings UnityGaribaldi Brings UnityGiuseppe GaribaldiGiuseppe Garibaldi——leads nationalists wholeads nationalists whoconquer southern Italyconquer southern ItalyCavour convinces GaribaldiCavour convinces Garibaldito unite southern Italy withto unite southern Italy withSardiniaSardiniaGaribaldi steps aside,Garibaldi steps aside,allowing the king ofallowing the king ofSardinia to ruleSardinia to ruleControl of Venetia andControl of Venetia andPapal States finally unitesPapal States finally unitesItalyItaly
  • 9. Case Study: GermanyCase Study: Germany Bismarck Unites GermanyBismarck Unites GermanyBeginning in 1815, thirty-nine German statesBeginning in 1815, thirty-nine German statesform the German Confederationform the German Confederation Prussia Leads German UnificationPrussia Leads German UnificationPrussia has advantages that help it to unifyPrussia has advantages that help it to unifyGermanyGermany• mainly German populationmainly German population• powerful armypowerful army• creation of liberal constitutioncreation of liberal constitution
  • 10. Case Study: GermanyCase Study: Germany Bismarck Takes ControlBismarck Takes ControlJunkersJunkers—conservative—conservativewealthy landowners—wealthy landowners—support Prussian Wilhelm Isupport Prussian Wilhelm IJunker realpolitik masterJunker realpolitik masterOtto von BismarckOtto von Bismarckbecomes prime ministerbecomes prime ministerRealpolitikRealpolitik—power politics—power politicswithout room for idealismwithout room for idealismBismarck defies PrussianBismarck defies Prussianparliamentparliament
  • 11. Case Study: GermanyCase Study: Germany Prussia ExpandsPrussia ExpandsPrussia and Austria fight Denmark, gain twoPrussia and Austria fight Denmark, gain twoprovincesprovincesQuick victory makes other German nationsQuick victory makes other German nationsrespect Prussiarespect Prussia
  • 12. Case Study: GermanyCase Study: Germany Seven Weeks WarSeven Weeks WarBismarck creates a border dispute withBismarck creates a border dispute withAustria to provoke a warAustria to provoke a warPrussia seizes Austrian territory, northernPrussia seizes Austrian territory, northernGermanyGermanyEastern and western parts of PrussianEastern and western parts of Prussiankingdom are joined for the first time.kingdom are joined for the first time.
  • 13. Case Study: GermanyCase Study: Germany The Franco-Prussian WarThe Franco-Prussian WarBismarck provokes war with France to uniteBismarck provokes war with France to uniteall Germansall GermansWilhelm is crownedWilhelm is crowned KaiserKaiser—emperor of a—emperor of aunited Germany—at Versaillesunited Germany—at VersaillesBismarck creates a Germany united underBismarck creates a Germany united underPrussian dominance.Prussian dominance.
  • 14. To some Germans, Bismarck was the greatest andnoblest of Germany’s statesmen. They say he almostsinglehandedly unified the nation and raised it togreatness. To others, he was nothing but a deviouspolitician who abused his powers and led Germany intodictatorship.His speeches, letters, and memoirs show him to beboth crafty and deeply religious. At one moment, hecould declare, “It is the destiny of the weak to bedevoured by the strong.” At another moment he mightclaim, “We Germans shall never wage aggressive war,ambitious war, a war of conquest.”
  • 15. A Shift in PowerA Shift in Power Balance Is LostBalance Is LostIn 1815 the Congress of Vienna established fiveIn 1815 the Congress of Vienna established fivepowers in Europe:powers in Europe:• AustriaAustria• PrussiaPrussia• BritainBritain• FranceFrance• RussiaRussiaBy 1871, Britain and Prussia (now Germany) haveBy 1871, Britain and Prussia (now Germany) havegained much powergained much powerAustria and Russia are weaker militarily andAustria and Russia are weaker militarily andeconomicallyeconomically