The EnlightenmentThe EnlightenmentSpreadsSpreadsChapter 22, Section 3Chapter 22, Section 3
Baroque MusicBaroque MusicRepresentative ComposersRepresentative ComposersAntonio VivaldiAntonio VivaldiJohann Sebastian BachJohann Sebastian BachGeorge Friedrich HandelGeorge Friedrich Handel
Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) Representative WorksRepresentative Works Most famous workMost famous work LeLequattro stagioniquattro stagioni ((The FourThe FourSeasonsSeasons) written in 1723.) written in 1723. 46 operas46 operas 76 sonatas76 sonatas Chamber musicChamber music Sacred musicSacred music
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) Representative WorksRepresentative Works cantatascantatas choraleschorales organ worksorgan works lute musiclute music chamber musicchamber music canons and fuguescanons and fugues Famous piece: “Jesu JoyFamous piece: “Jesu Joyof Man’s Desiring”of Man’s Desiring”
George Frederick Handel (1685-1759)George Frederick Handel (1685-1759) Representative WorksRepresentative Works 42 operas42 operas 29 oratorios29 oratorios 120 cantatas, trios, duets120 cantatas, trios, duets numerous ariasnumerous arias chamber musicchamber music Most famous work:Most famous work:MessiahMessiah oratorio traditionallyoratorio traditionallyperformed during theperformed during theChristmas season, includingChristmas season, including“Hallelujah Chorus”.“Hallelujah Chorus”.
Classical MusicClassical Music Representative ComposersRepresentative ComposersJoseph HaydnJoseph HaydnWolfgang Amadeus MozartWolfgang Amadeus MozartLudwig van BeethovenLudwig van Beethoven
Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) Known as “Father of theKnown as “Father of theSymphony” and “FatherSymphony” and “Fatherof the String Quartet”of the String Quartet” Representative WorksRepresentative Works 104 Symphonies104 Symphonies numerous concertos fornumerous concertos forvarious instrumentsvarious instruments 15 operas15 operas other musicother music
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Representative worksRepresentative works 23 operas23 operas numerous symphoniesnumerous symphonies ““Toy Symphony”Toy Symphony” concertosconcertos ““Flute concerto no. 2 in DFlute concerto no. 2 in DMajor, K 314”Major, K 314” piano musicpiano music chamber musicchamber music sacred musicsacred music massesmasses
Ludwig van BeethovenLudwig van Beethoven Representative WorksRepresentative Works Symphonies (5Symphonies (5ththand 9and 9ththprobably the mostprobably the mostfamous)famous) Piano musicPiano music ““Fur Elise”Fur Elise” Vocal musicVocal music OperasOperas Choral musicChoral music
Enlightened DespotsEnlightened Despots Frederick II (the Great) of PrussiaFrederick II (the Great) of Prussia Joseph II of AustriaJoseph II of Austria Catherine II (the Great) of RussiaCatherine II (the Great) of Russia
Frederick II (the Great) of PrussiaFrederick II (the Great) of Prussia Ruled Prussia from 1740to 1786; granted religiousfreedoms, reducedcensorship, improvededucation
Joseph II of AustriaJoseph II of Austria ReligionReligion Joseph II had the most progressiveJoseph II had the most progressivepolicy of religion toleration in all ofpolicy of religion toleration in all ofEurope. He granted toleration towardEurope. He granted toleration towardJews as well as Protestants. His anti-Jews as well as Protestants. His anti-clerical and liberal innovationsclerical and liberal innovationsprovoked a visit from the Pope Piusprovoked a visit from the Pope PiusVI in 1782. Joseph showed himself aVI in 1782. Joseph showed himself agood Catholic, but was not persuadedgood Catholic, but was not persuadedto change his liberal positions onto change his liberal positions onreligion.religion. The ArtsThe Arts He was known as the “musical king.”He was known as the “musical king.”He was a huge patron of composers.He was a huge patron of composers.He is featured prominently in theHe is featured prominently in themoviemovie AmadeusAmadeus, the fictionalized, the fictionalizedbiography of Mozart.biography of Mozart.
Catherine II (the Great) of RussiaCatherine II (the Great) of Russia Ruled Russia from 1762to 1796; put in placelimited reforms; vastlyenlarged the Russianempire
Answers to Reteaching ActivityAnswers to Reteaching Activity
Diderot’sDiderot’s EncyclopediaEncyclopedia Diderot began to publish a series of books in1751 that were compilations of articles fromleading scholars. Even though the Frenchgovernment and the Catholic Church censoredthe Encyclopedia, it was responsible for spreadingEnlightenment ideas all over Europe.
Neoclassical StyleNeoclassical Style Neoclassical art began to replace baroque art duringthe late 1700s. Neoclassical art followed a simpleand elegant style that drew on ideas fromclassical Greece and Rome.
Changes in music during theChanges in music during theEnlightenmentEnlightenment Classical music, with a new, lighter style, emergedduring the Enlightenment. Haydn, Mozart, andBeethoven were three classical composers fromAustria.
Changes in literature during theChanges in literature during theEnlightenmentEnlightenment Eighteenth century writers began writing novels,lengthy works of prose fiction. Pamela, bySamuel Richardson, is often considered the firstEnglish novel.
Enlightened despotsEnlightened despots Enlightened despots supported the ideas of thephilosophes and made enlightenment reforms.Europe’s most important enlightened despotsincluded Frederick II of Prussia, Joseph II ofAustria, and Catherine the Great of Russia.
Frederick IIFrederick II Ruled Prussia from 1740to 1786; granted religiousfreedoms, reducedcensorship, improvededucation
Catherine the GreatCatherine the Great Ruled Russia from 1762to 1796; put in placelimited reforms; vastlyenlarged the Russianempire