22.1 The Scientific22.1 The ScientificRevolutionRevolutionIn the mid-1500s, scientists beginIn the mid-1500s, scientists beginto question accepted beliefs andto question accepted beliefs andmake new theories based onmake new theories based onexperimentationexperimentation
The Roots of Modern ScienceThe Roots of Modern Science The Medieval ViewThe Medieval View• Most knowledge inMost knowledge inthe Middle Agesthe Middle Agescomes from thecomes from theBible andBible andGreek/RomanGreek/Romansources.sources.• SupportsSupportsgeocentricgeocentric theorytheory—moon, sun,—moon, sun,planets revolveplanets revolvearound eartharound earth
The Roots of Modern ScienceThe Roots of Modern Science A New Way of ThinkingA New Way of Thinking• Renaissance prompts new ways ofRenaissance prompts new ways ofthinking (1300-1600)thinking (1300-1600)• Scientific Revolution—new way ofScientific Revolution—new way ofviewing the natural world—based onviewing the natural world—based onobservation and inquiryobservation and inquiry• New discoveries, overseas explorationNew discoveries, overseas explorationopen up thinkingopen up thinking• Scholars make new developments inScholars make new developments inastronomy and mathematics.astronomy and mathematics.
A Revolutionary Model of the UniverseA Revolutionary Model of the Universe The HeliocentricThe HeliocentricTheoryTheory• Widely acceptedWidely acceptedgeocentric theorygeocentric theorychallenged aschallenged asinaccurateinaccurate• Copernicus developsCopernicus developsthe heliocentric theorythe heliocentric theory—planets revolve—planets revolvearound the sunaround the sun• Later scientistsLater scientistsmathematically provemathematically proveCopernicus to beCopernicus to becorrectcorrectNicolausCopernicus
A Revolutionary Model of the UniverseA Revolutionary Model of the Universe Galileo’s DiscoveriesGalileo’s Discoveries• Italian scientist GalileoItalian scientist GalileoGalilei makes keyGalilei makes keyadvances in astronomy.advances in astronomy.• He makes discoveryHe makes discoveryabout planet surfacesabout planet surfaces• supports heliocentricsupports heliocentrictheorytheory• 4 moons of Jupiter4 moons of Jupiter(Jupiter has 8 moons)(Jupiter has 8 moons)• Sun spotsSun spotsGalileo Galilei
Conflict with theConflict with theChurchChurch• Church attacksChurch attacksGalileo’s work, fearsGalileo’s work, fearsit will weakenit will weakenpeople’s faithpeople’s faith• Pope forces GalileoPope forces Galileoto declare his andto declare his andother new findingsother new findingsare wrongare wrongCristiano Bantis 1857 painting Galileofacing the Roman Inquisition
The Scientific MethodThe Scientific Method A Logical ApproachA Logical Approach• Revolution in thinking leads to development ofRevolution in thinking leads to development ofscientific method—a series of steps for formingscientific method—a series of steps for formingand testing scientific theoriesand testing scientific theories Bacon and DescartesBacon and Descartes• Thinkers Bacon and Descartes help to createThinkers Bacon and Descartes help to createscientific methodscientific method• Bacon urges scientists to experiment beforeBacon urges scientists to experiment beforedrawing conclusionsdrawing conclusions• Descartes advocates using logic and math toDescartes advocates using logic and math toreason out basic truthsreason out basic truths
The Scientific MethodThe Scientific MethodFrancis Bacon (1561-1626) René Descartes (1595-1650)
Newton Explains the Law of GravityNewton Explains the Law of Gravity Newton’s TheoriesNewton’s Theories• English scientist IsaacEnglish scientist IsaacNewton develops theoryNewton develops theoryof motion—states someof motion—states someforces rule motion offorces rule motion ofplanets, matter inplanets, matter inspace, and earthspace, and earth• LAW OF GRAVITYLAW OF GRAVITYIsaac Newton in 1689
Newton Explains the Law of GravityNewton Explains the Law of Gravity Newton’s TheoriesNewton’s Theories(continued)(continued)• Motion in space andMotion in space andearth linked by the lawearth linked by the lawof universal gravitationof universal gravitation—holds that every—holds that everyobject is universeobject is universeattracts every otherattracts every otherobjectobject• Newton views theNewton views theuniverse as a vast,universe as a vast,perfect mechanicalperfect mechanicalclockclockIsaac Newton in 1702
The Scientific Revolution SpreadsThe Scientific Revolution Spreads ScientificScientificInstrumentsInstruments• Scientists developScientists developmicroscope,microscope,barometer, andbarometer, andthermometerthermometer• New instrumentsNew instrumentslead to betterlead to betterobservations andobservations andnew discoveriesnew discoveriesmicroscopethermometersimplemercurybarometer
The Scientific Revolution SpreadsThe Scientific Revolution Spreads Medicine and theMedicine and theHuman BodyHuman Body• Andreas VesaliusAndreas Vesaliusimprovesimprovesknowledge ofknowledge ofanatomyanatomyAndreas Vesalius
The Scientific Revolution SpreadsThe Scientific Revolution Spreads Medicine and theMedicine and theHuman BodyHuman Body(continued)(continued)• Edward JennerEdward Jennerproduces world’sproduces world’sfirst vaccination—first vaccination—for smallpoxfor smallpox
1802 caricature of Jenner vaccinatingpatients who feared it would makethem sprout cow like appendages.
The Scientific Revolution SpreadsThe Scientific Revolution Spreads Discoveries inDiscoveries inChemistryChemistry• Robert Boyle arguesRobert Boyle arguesthat matter is madethat matter is madeof many differentof many differentparticlesparticles• Boyle’s law revealsBoyle’s law revealsinteraction ofinteraction ofvolume,volume,temperature, andtemperature, andgas pressure.gas pressure.