21 1 spain’s empire and european absolutism

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21 1 spain’s empire and european absolutism

  1. 1. Spain’s Empire andSpain’s Empire andEuropean AbsolutismEuropean AbsolutismChapter 21, Section 1Chapter 21, Section 1
  2. 2. Section OpenerSection Opener During a time ofDuring a time ofreligious andreligious andeconomic instability,economic instability,Philip II rules SpainPhilip II rules Spainwith a strong hand.with a strong hand.Philip II of SpainMay 21 1527 - September 13 1598
  3. 3. A Powerful Spanish EmpireA Powerful Spanish Empire A New Spanish RulerA New Spanish Ruler– In 1556, Philip II begins ruling Spain and itsIn 1556, Philip II begins ruling Spain and itspossessionspossessions Philip II’s EmpirePhilip II’s Empire– Philip seizes Portugal in 1580Philip seizes Portugal in 1580– Gold and silver from Americas make SpainGold and silver from Americas make Spainextremely wealthyextremely wealthy
  4. 4. A Powerful Spanish EmpireA Powerful Spanish Empire Defender of CatholicismDefender of Catholicism– Philip defends Catholicism against MuslimsPhilip defends Catholicism against Muslimsand Protestantsand Protestants– Spanish fleet helps defeat Ottomans atSpanish fleet helps defeat Ottomans atLepanto in 1571.Lepanto in 1571.– Spanish Armada is defeated by the British inSpanish Armada is defeated by the British in1588.1588.
  5. 5. Golden Age of Spanish Art andGolden Age of Spanish Art andLiteratureLiterature El Greco and VelEl Greco and Velázquezázquez– El Greco uses unusual style to conveyEl Greco uses unusual style to conveyreligious themesreligious themes– Works ofWorks of VelVelázquez show Spanish court lifeázquez show Spanish court life Don QuixoteDon Quixote– In 1605, Don Quixote by Miguel de CervantesIn 1605, Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantesis publishedis published– Novel marks the birth of the modern EuropeanNovel marks the birth of the modern Europeannovel.novel.
  6. 6. ““Portrait of an Old Man”Portrait of an Old Man” This painting titledThis painting titled“Portrait of an Old“Portrait of an OldMan” is considered aMan” is considered aself portrait by Elself portrait by ElGreco, circa 1595–Greco, circa 1595–1600, oil on canvas.1600, oil on canvas.
  7. 7.  The Assumption of theThe Assumption of theVirginVirgin (1577–1579, oil on(1577–1579, oil oncanvas, 401 × 228 cm,canvas, 401 × 228 cm,Art Institute of Chicago)Art Institute of Chicago)was one of the ninewas one of the ninepaintings El Grecopaintings El Grecocompleted for the churchcompleted for the churchof Santo Domingo elof Santo Domingo elAntiguo in Toledo, his firstAntiguo in Toledo, his firstcommission in Spain.commission in Spain.This shows the religiousThis shows the religiousthemes of his painting.themes of his painting.
  8. 8. Diego Velázquez: two self portraitsDiego Velázquez: two self portraits
  9. 9.  Portrait of Pablo dePortrait of Pablo deValladolidValladolid– A court fool or jester,A court fool or jester,circa 1635circa 1635
  10. 10. The Spanish Empire WeakensThe Spanish Empire Weakens Inflation and TaxesInflation and Taxes– Inflation weakens Spain’s economy.Inflation weakens Spain’s economy.– Taxes on lower class prevents development of middleTaxes on lower class prevents development of middleclass.class. Making Spain’s Enemies RichMaking Spain’s Enemies Rich– Spaniards buy goods abroad, making Spain’sSpaniards buy goods abroad, making Spain’senemies rich.enemies rich.– Philip declares bankruptcy three times due to weakPhilip declares bankruptcy three times due to weakeconomy.economy. The Dutch RevoltThe Dutch Revolt– Protestants in the Netherlands win independenceProtestants in the Netherlands win independencefrom Spain in 1579.from Spain in 1579.
  11. 11.  "Queen Elizabeth I Feeds the Dutch Cow", a satirical Flemish painting, c. 1586. The cow represents"Queen Elizabeth I Feeds the Dutch Cow", a satirical Flemish painting, c. 1586. The cow representsthe Dutch provinces. King Philip II of Spain is vainly trying to ride the cow, drawing blood with histhe Dutch provinces. King Philip II of Spain is vainly trying to ride the cow, drawing blood with hisspurs. Queen Elizabeth is feeding it while William of Orange holds it steady by the horns. The cow isspurs. Queen Elizabeth is feeding it while William of Orange holds it steady by the horns. The cow isdefecating on the Duke of Anjou, who is holding its tail - a reference to Anjous fiasco at the "Frenchdefecating on the Duke of Anjou, who is holding its tail - a reference to Anjous fiasco at the "FrenchFury" in Antwerp, three years previouslyFury" in Antwerp, three years previously
  12. 12. The Independent Dutch ProsperThe Independent Dutch Prosper A Different SocietyA Different Society– The Netherlands is a republic and practicesThe Netherlands is a republic and practicesreligious toleration.religious toleration. Dutch ArtDutch Art– In the 1600s, the Netherlands becomesIn the 1600s, the Netherlands becomescenter of European Artcenter of European Art– Rembrandt and Vermeer are famous DutchRembrandt and Vermeer are famous DutchPaintersPainters
  13. 13. RembrandtRembrandt Self portraitSelf portrait
  14. 14.  Christ in the StormChrist in the Stormon the Lake ofon the Lake ofGalileeGalilee bybyRembrandt, circaRembrandt, circa1633. This original1633. This originalpainting was stolenpainting was stolenin 1990 and wasin 1990 and wasnever recovered.never recovered.
  15. 15. Paintings by VermeerPaintings by Vermeer Vermeer paintedVermeer paintedscenes from everyscenes from everyday life. This paintingday life. This paintingMilkmaidMilkmaid, is circa, is circa1658-1660.1658-1660.
  16. 16. Paintings by VermeerPaintings by Vermeer Officer Laughing WithOfficer Laughing WithGirlGirl, is circa 1657-, is circa 1657-1659.1659.
  17. 17. Paintings by VermeerPaintings by Vermeer The Little StreetThe Little Street, is, iscirca 1657-1658.circa 1657-1658.
  18. 18. The Independent Dutch ProsperThe Independent Dutch Prosper Dutch Trading EmpireDutch Trading Empire– Dutch merchants engage in world tradeDutch merchants engage in world trade– Dutch have world’s largest trading fleetDutch have world’s largest trading fleet– Dutch people replace Italians as Europe’sDutch people replace Italians as Europe’sbankersbankers
  19. 19. Absolutism in EuropeAbsolutism in Europe The Theory of AbsolutismThe Theory of Absolutism– Rulers want to be absolute monarchs—rulers with completeRulers want to be absolute monarchs—rulers with completepowerpower– Believe in “divine right”—idea that monarchs represent God onBelieve in “divine right”—idea that monarchs represent God onearth. (The idea can be derived fromearth. (The idea can be derived from Romans 13: 1-4Romans 13: 1-4.).) Growing Power of Europe’s MonarchsGrowing Power of Europe’s Monarchs– Decline of Feudalism, rise of cities help monarchs gain powerDecline of Feudalism, rise of cities help monarchs gain power– Decline of Church authority also increases powerDecline of Church authority also increases power Crises Lead to AbsolutismCrises Lead to Absolutism– The 17The 17ththcentury is a period of great upheavalcentury is a period of great upheaval– Monarchs impose order by increasing their own power.Monarchs impose order by increasing their own power.
  20. 20. Possible Basis ofPossible Basis of“Divine Right of Kings”“Divine Right of Kings”Romans 13:1-4Romans 13:1-4 ” ”Let every person be subject to the governing authorities.Let every person be subject to the governing authorities.For there is no authority except from God, and those thatFor there is no authority except from God, and those thatexist have been instituted by God. Therefore whoeverexist have been instituted by God. Therefore whoeverresists the authorities resists what God has appointed,resists the authorities resists what God has appointed,and those who resist will incur judgment. For rulers areand those who resist will incur judgment. For rulers arenot a terror to good conduct, but to bad. Would you havenot a terror to good conduct, but to bad. Would you haveno fear of the one who is in authority? Then do what isno fear of the one who is in authority? Then do what isgood, and you will receive his approval, for he is God’sgood, and you will receive his approval, for he is God’sservant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, forservant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, forhe does not bear the sword in vain. For he is the servanthe does not bear the sword in vain. For he is the servantof God, an avenger who carries out God’s wrath on theof God, an avenger who carries out God’s wrath on thewrongdoer.”wrongdoer.”

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