14.1 Church Reform and theCrusadesThe Catholic Church underwentreform and launched Crusadesagainst Muslims.
The Age of Faith• Spiritual Revival– Starting in the900s, monasteries helpbring about a spiritualrevival– Reformers help restoreand expand ChurchpowerFounded in 910, this is the Benedictine Abbey ofCluny as it looked in 2004.Coat of Arms of Cluny Abbey: "Gules two keysin saltire the wards upwards and outwards oroverall a sword in pale argent".
Problems in the Church• Some Church officialsmarry even though theChurch objects• Some officials practicesimony—selling religiousoffices• Kings use lay investitureto appoint bishops• Reformers believe onlythe Church shouldappoint bishops
New Religious Orders• Dominican andFranciscan orders form• Friars in these ordersvow poverty; travel andpreach to the poor• Some new orders forwomen are foundedPortrait of a Carmelite friar, about1610, by Peter Paul Rubens
Cathedrals—Cities of God• Early Cathedrals– Between 800-1100, churchesare built inRomanesquestyle– Style includesthick walls andpillars, smallwindows, round arches
A New Style of Church Architecture• Gothic style evolves around 1100; term fromGermanic tribe, Goths• Gothic style has large, tall windows for morelight; pointed arches• Churches have stained glass windows, manysculptures• About 500 Gothic churches are built from1170 to 1270
Gothic ArchitectureThe master builders inFrance, where the Gothicstyle originated, developedtechniques of structuralengineering that were key toGothic architecture:1. ribbed vaults thatsupported the roof’sweight2. flying buttresses thattransferred weight tothick, exterior walls3. pointed arches thatframed huge stainedglass windows4. tall spires that seemedto be pointing to heaven
The Crusades: The Beginning• In 1093, Byzantineemperor asks forhelp fighting theTurks• Pope Urban IIissues a call for aCrusade—a “holywar”Byzantine EmperorAlexios I Komnenoswho asked PopeUrban II for help (left)Artistic depiction of PopeUrban II (left), and himpreaching the FirstCrusade (right)
Goals of the Crusades• Pope wants to reclaim Jerusalem and reuniteChristianity• Kings use Crusades to send away knights who causetrouble• Younger sons hope to earn land or win glory by fighting(although historian Rodney Stark in God’s Battalions:The Case for the Crusades disagrees with that theorybecause the first three crusades were led by the headsof the royal families of Europe).• Later, merchants join Crusades to try to gain wealththrough trade.
First Crusade: 1096-1099• Pope promises Crusaderswho die a place in heaven• First Crusade: threearmies gather atConstantinople in 1097• Crusaders captureJerusalem in 1099• Captured lands alongcoast divided into fourCrusader states
Second Crusade: 1147-1148• Muslims take backEdessa in 1144; Secondcrusade fails to retake it• In 1187, Saladin—Muslim leader andKurdish warrior—retakes JerusalemLeft: an artisticrepresentation ofSaladinRight: Saladinthe Victorious byGustave Dore
The Third Crusade: 1189-1192• The Third Crusade was led by three powerfulrulersRichard I of England—”TheLion-Hearted”Phillip II of FranceFrederick I “Barbarossa” ofthe Holy Roman Empire(Germany)
The Third Crusade : 1189-1192• One is Richardthe Lion-Hearted—kingof England• The Robin Hoodstories andlegends oftensurroundRichard Ireturning fromthe ThirdCrusade.19th-centuryportrait of Richardby Merry-JosephBlondel
The Third Crusade: 1189-1192• Phillip II ofFranceabandonsCrusade afterarguing withRichard• The argumentwas overRichardbreaking offanengagementwith Phillip’ssister.
The Third Crusade : 1189-1192• Frederick I of Germany(Holy Roman Empire)drowns during thejourneyRight: A depiction ofFrederick I drowning in theSaleph River in Turkeyfrom the Saxon Chronicle.
The Third Crusade : 1189-1192• In 1192 Richard and Saladin make peace aftermany battles• Saladin keeps Jerusalem but allows Christianpilgrims to enter the city
The Crusading Spirit Dwindles:The Later Crusades• Fourth Crusade (1200-1204)– Crusaders sack theChristian city Zara and areexcommunicated by thepope for it.– The Venetian leadershipkeeps theirexcommunication a secret.Then Crusaders sackConstantinople in 1204• Two other Crusades strikeEgypt, but fail to weakenthe MuslimsLooting of Constantinople, paintingby Eugene Delacroix, 1840
The Children’s Crusade• The traditional story saysthat in 1212 thousands ofchildren possibly die orare enslaved in a failedcrusade.• But these stories aresurrounded by legend andfiction. The fact that thisreally happened isdisputed.The Children’s Crusade byGustave Doré•This event may very wellmerely be a legendembellished over time.
Two Stories about the Children’s Crusade• Leader: Nicholas• Country: Germany• Purpose: intended to lead acrusade to convert the Muslims toChristianity by the preaching ofchildren. Nicholas promised amiracle that the waters of theMediterranean would divide sothey could walk to the Holy Land.• Result: A following of about 7,000people, both adults and childrenarrive in Genoa, Italy afterpreaching a crusade throughoutGermany and crossing the Alps. Thewaters did not divide. Themovement continues to Rome butbegins to break up. The Popeinstructs the group to return home.Nicholas does not survive thereturn home.• Leader: Stephen• Country: France• Purpose: He claims Jesusappeared to him and gave hima letter for the king of France.• Result: Phillip II, king of Franceis unimpressed.Stephen, however, continuesto preach and tries to lead agroup to Marseilles. It seemslike many surviving youthsreturned to their families.
A Spanish Crusade• Most of Spaincontrolled by Moors, aMuslim people• Christians fightReconquista—driveMuslims fromSpain, 1100-1492• Spain has Inquisition—court to suppressheresy; expels non-ChristiansInquisition scene of people accused ofheresy being tortured.
The Effects of the Crusades• Crusades show power of Church in convincingthousands to fight• Women who stay home manage the estate andbusiness affairs• Merchants expand trade, bring back many goodsfrom Southwest Asia• Failure of later crusades weakens pope andnobles, strengthens kings• Crusades create lasting bitterness betweenMuslims and Christians