10.2 Islam Expands In spite of internal conflicts, the Muslims create a huge empire that includes land on three continents.
Vocabulary Caliph Highest political and religious leader in a Muslim government Umayyads Dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from A.D. 661 to 750 Sunni Branch of Islam whose members believe the first four caliphs are the rightful successors of Muhammad Shi’a Branch of Islam whose members believe Ali and his descendants are the rightful successors of Muhammad
Vocabulary Sufi Muslim who tries to achieve direct contact with God Abbasids Dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from A.D. 750 to 1258 al-Andalus Muslim-ruled area in what is now Spain Fatimid Member of a Muslim dynasty that traced its ancestry to Muhammad’s daughter Fatima
Muhammad’s Successors Spread Islam A New Leader • In 632 Muhammad dies; Muslims elect Abu-Bakr to be the first caliph. • Caliph—title for a Muslim leader—means “successor” or “deputy.
Muhammad’s Successors Spread Islam “Rightly Guided” Caliphs • The first four caliphs are guided by the Qur’an and Muhammad’s actions. • Jihad—an armed struggle against unbelievers—is used to expand Islam. • Muslims control all of Arabia, and armies conquer Syria and lower Egypt. • By 750, the Muslim empire stretches from the Altantic Ocean to the Indus River.
Muhammad’s Successors Spread Islam Reasons for Success • Muslim armies are well disciplined and expertly commanded. • Byzantine and Sassanid empires are weak from previous conflict. • Persecuted citizens of these empires welcome Islam. • People are attracted to Islam’s offer of equality and hope.
Muhammad’s Successors Spread Islam Treatment of Conquered Peoples • Muslim invaders tolerate other religions. • Christians and Jews receive special consideration as “people of the book.”
From 632 to750, highlymobile troopsmounted oncamels weresuccessful inconquering landsin the name ofAllah.
Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis Rise of the Umayyads • Struggles for power end the elective system of choosing a caliph • A wealthy family, the Umayyads, take power and move the capital to Damascus.
Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis Sunni—Shi’a Split • Shi’a— “party” of Ali—believe the caliph should be a descendant of Muhammad. • Sunni—followers of Muhammad’s example—supported the Umayyads. • Sufi followers pursue life of poverty and spirituality. They reject the Umayyads. • In 750, a rebel group—the Abbasids— topple the Umayyads.
Control Extends Over Three-Continents Fall of the Umayyads • Abbasids murder Umayyad family; one prince escapes, Abd al-Rahman • He flees to Spain and establishes the Umayyad caliphate in al-Andalus. • al-Andalus is a Muslim state in southern Spain settled by North Africans.
Control Extends Over Three-Continents Abbasids Consolidate Power • In 762, Abbasids move Muslim capital from Damascus to Bagdad. • Location provides access to trade goods, gold, and information. • Abbasids develop a strong bureaucracy to manage empire.
Control Extends Over Three-Continents Rival Groups Divide Muslim Lands • Independent Muslim states spring up; Shi’a Muslims form new caliphate • Fatimid caliphate—claim descent from Fatima, daughter of Muhammad. • The Fatimid caliphate begins in North Africa and spreads to the Red Sea, western Arabia, and Syria.
Control Extends Over Three-Continents Muslim Trade Network • Muslims trade by land and sea with Asia and Europe • Muslim merchants use Arabic, single currency, and checks. • Cordoba, in al-Andalus, is a dazzling center of Muslim cutlure.