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  • Chapter 2 – Information System Building Blocks This repository of slides is intended to support the named chapter. The slide repository should be used as follows: Copy the file to a unique name for your course and unit. Edit the file by deleting those slides you don’t want to cover, editing other slides as appropriate to your course, and adding slides as desired. Print the slides to produce transparency masters or print directly to film or present the slides using a computer image projector. Each slide includes instructor notes. To view those notes in PowerPoint, click-left on the View Menu; then click left on Notes View sub-menu. You may need to scroll down to see the instructor notes. The instructor notes are also available in hardcopy as the Instructor Guide to Accompany Systems Analysis and Design Methods, 6/ed.
  • No additional notes
  • Teaching Notes This is the capstone figure for the chapter —the complete information systems building blocks framework. Emphasize that ALL building blocks are relevant to ALL information systems that the student will encounter or develop during the course of their career. Emphasize that the building blocks must be synchronized both horizontally and vertically when building information systems. Vertical synchronization ensures that each block represents fully the perspectives of the other blocks in the same column. For example, a database schema must implement the intended data requirements. Horizontal synchronization ensures that each block in a given row is consistent and complete with respect to the other blocks in that same row. For example, each table in a database schema requires application software and specifications to maintain the data stored in those tables.
  • Teaching Notes This classification scheme comes from popular usage in the trade literature. This terminology is not to be confused with office automation . In fact, office automation systems can be either front-office or back-office, just as with other types of information system applications.
  • Teaching Notes This slide visually illustrates front- and back-office applications and highlights the following: Many organizations purchase their back-office systems in the form of enterprise resource planning (ERP) products such as SAP, PeopleSoft, and Oracle. The ERP industry is trying to expand into the front-office applications. It might be noted that electronic commerce and business extensions are being added to both front- and back-office applications in order to streamline interfaces to both customers and suppliers. E-commerce is being driven by the Internet (and private extranets). E-business is being enabled by intranets.
  • Conversion Notes These definitions on this and the next slide were not in the 5 th edition. These definitions can be useful to help students understand what an information system is in all its varieties and flavors. Depending on the prerequisites of your course, you may want to cover these in more or less detail.
  • Teaching Notes It may be useful to walk through this diagram in class. The textbook coverage included numbered annotations that highlight portions of this diagram. Remind students that any given information system may include many instances of each of these IS application processes and databases.
  • No additional notes
  • Conversion Notes The KNOWLEDGE building block was called DATA in the 5 th edition. The PROCESS building block was called PROCESSES in the 5 th edition. The COMMUNICATION building block was called INTERFACES in the 5 th edition.
  • Conversion Notes The KNOWLEDGE building block was called DATA in the 5 th edition. Teaching Notes This slide visually illustrates the chapter’s discussion of the KNOWLEDGE focus as seen by different stakeholders. If your students have taken a database course, it can be useful to summarize that experience within the context of the KNOWLEDGE column.
  • Teaching Notes This slide places definitions and key terms relevant to the KNOWLEDGE focus into the context of stakeholders.
  • Conversion Notes The PROCESS building block was called PROCESSES in the 5 th edition. Teaching Notes This slide visually illustrates the chapter’s discussion of the PROCESS focus as seen by the different stakeholders. Most students have some programming experience. Accordingly, it can be useful to summarize that experience within the context of the PROCESS column. Consider summarizing that experience by working bottom-to-top in the column to reinforce their perspective of the “application programs” they wrote. The programming instructor typically played the roles of system owners, users, and analysts when they wrote the programming assignments. The student typically played the roles of designer (e.g., flowcharts) and builder (e.g, programming code).
  • Teaching Notes This slide places definitions and key terms relevant to the PROCESS focus into the context of stakeholders.
  • Teaching Notes This slide places definitions and key terms relevant to the PROCESS focus into the context of stakeholders.
  • Teaching Notes This slide places definitions and key terms relevant to the PROCESS focus into the context of stakeholders.
  • Conversion Notes The COMMUNICATION building block was called INTERFACE in the 5 th edition. Teaching Notes This slide visually illustrates the chapter’s discussion of the COMMUNICATION focus as seen by the different stakeholders. Many students have written programs for graphical user interfaces using languages such as Access, Visual Basic and HTML . Accordingly, it can be useful to summarize that experience within the context of the INTERFACE column. While it is conceptually and practically useful to separate COMMUNICATION and PROCESS, it should be noted that many of today’s contemporary application development environments (ADEs) such as .NET effectively integrate the technology used to construct both the user interface and the application logic. Some students find this confusing. Interestingly, the emphasis on Web-based applications is truly separating the concerns. For example, the interface elements of a Web are written in HTML while the application logic is written in C++ or Java .
  • Teaching Notes This slide places definitions and key terms relevant to the COMMUNICATION focus into the context of stakeholders.
  • Teaching Notes This slide places definitions and key terms relevant to the COMMUNICATION focus into the context of stakeholders.
  • Teaching Notes This slide illustrates the classic model of separating and partitioning the layers of an information system application across a network. This clean-layering approach allows any one building block to be replaced with another while having little or no impact on the other building blocks. This is called a distributed computing architecture and it can be implemented using either client/server or Internet/intranet technology, or a combination of both.

Transcript

  • 1. 2 C H A P T E R INFORMATION SYSTEM BUILDING BLOCKS
  • 2. Chapter Two Information System Building Blocks
    • Differentiate between front - and back-office information systems.
    • Describe the different classes of information system applications ( transaction processing, management information, decision support, expert, communication and collaboration, and office automation systems ) and how they interoperate to supplement one another.
    • Describe the role of information systems architecture in systems development.
    • Identify three high-level goals that provide system owners and system users with a perspective of an information system.
    • Name three goal-oriented perspectives for any information system.
    • Identify three technologies that provide system designers and builders with a perspective of an information system.
    • Describe four building blocks of the KNOWLEDGE goal for an information system.
    • Describe four building blocks of the PROCESS goal for an information system.
    • Describe four building blocks of the COMMUNICATIONS goal for an information system.
    • Describe the role of network technologies as it relates to Knowledge, Processes, and Communications building blocks.
  • 3. Chapter Map
  • 4. Product of Information Systems
    • Front-office information systems :
    • Mendukung fungsi bisnis terutama berkaitan dengan jangkauan ke kustomer.
      • Marketing
      • Sales
      • Customer management
    • Back-office information systems
    • Mendukung operasi bisnis internal, dan dimungkinkan berinteraksi dengan supplier (materials, equipment, supplies, and services).
      • Human resources
      • Financial management
      • Manufacturing
      • Inventory control
  • 5. A Federation of Information Systems
  • 6. Information System Applications
        • Kelas-kelas aplikasi sistem informas :
        • Transaction Processing System (TPS)
        • Management Information System (MIS)
        • Decision Support System (DSS)
        • Executive Information System (EIS)
        • Expert System (ES)
        • Communications and Collaboration System (CCS)
        • Office Automation system (OAS)
  • 7. Information System Applications
  • 8. Information System Applications
    • Proses transaksi pertama merespon ke input data transasksi, menghasilkan informasi transaksi untuk verifikasi pemrosesan transaksi input yang benar
    • Proses transaksi kedua hanya menghasilkan output.
    • SIM menghasilkan laporan atau informasi dengan menggunakan data yang tersimpan dalam database transasksional.
    • SIM menghasilkan informasi manajemen operasional.
    • SIM mungkin menggunakan data dari berbagai database transaksional.
    • Database transaksioal akan membentuk gudang data.
    • Aplikasi dukungan keputusan dan sistem informasi eksekutif akan menyediakan akses read-only ke gudang data untuk menghasilkan dukungan keputusan dan informasi manajemen eksekutif.
    • Sebuah sistem pakar mensyaratkan database khusus yang menyimpan knowledge dalam bentuk aturan dan heuristik.
    • Sistem pakar menerima masalah sebagai input atau mengenali masalah dalam lingkungan.
    • Sistem otomatisasi kantor pribadi untuk pemrosesan data dan bisnis.
    • Sistem otomatisasi kantor workgroup berbasis pesan adalah solusi skala lebih kecil pada kebutuhan-kebutuhan departemen.
  • 9. Information Systems Architecture
    • Berperan sebagai kerangka untuk memahami pandangan-pandangan yang berbeda akan blok-blok pembangun sistem informasi. Secara mendasar menyediakan fondasi untuk mengorganisasi berbagai komponen sistem informasi yang akan dikembangkan.
    • Blok pembangun sistem informasi :
      • Driver bisnis : knowledge, proses, komunikasi
      •  perspektif owner
      • Driver teknologi : database, software, interface
      •  perspektif designer/builder
  • 10. Information System Building Blocks
  • 11. Focuses for Information Systems
    • Knowledge — data mentah yang digunakan untuk membuat informasi yang bermakna.
    • Process — aktivitas (termasuk manajemen) untuk mencapai misi bisnis.
    • Communication — bagaimana interface sistem dengan user atau dengan sistem informasi lainnya.
  • 12. KNOWLEDGE Building Blocks
  • 13. Views of KNOWLEDGE
    • System owners’ view
      • Tidak tertarik pada raw data, tapi tertarik pada informasi yang menambah pengetuhuan bisnis baru untuk membantu pengambilan keputusan secara cerdas.
      • Berbentuk daftar entitas-entitas dan aturan-aturan bisnis.
    • System users’ view
      • Data dicatat dalam berbagai bentuk, disimpan dalam kabinet, dicatat dalam buku dan binder, diorganisasikan dalam spreadsheet, atau disimpan dalam file dan database komputer.
      • Data requirement – representasi data user melalui entitas, atribut, relasi dan aturan-aturan terpisah.
    • System designers’ view
      • Struktur data, skema data, field, indeks, dan batasan sebagai bagian DBMS
    • System builders’ view
      • SQL
      • DBMS atau teknologi data lain
  • 14. PROCESS Building Blocks
  • 15. Views of PROCESS
    • System owners’ view
      • Pada umumnya berkaitan dengan fungsi bisnis .
      • Business function – Kumpulan proses-proses bisnis. Dapat didekomposisi menjadi sub-sub fungsi dengan tugas khusus.
      • Sistem Informasi Lintas-Fungsi – sistem yang mendukung proses bisnis dari beberapa fungsi bisnis tanpa meninggalkan batasan organisasi (bagian, departemen, kantor).
    Continued ...
  • 16. Views of PROCESS (continued)
    • System users’ view
      • Berhubungan dengan penyediaan respon atas kejadian-kejadian bisnis.
      • Business processes – aktivitas yang berkaitan dengan kejadian bisnis.
      • Process requirements – harapan pengguna pada persyaratan pemrosesan untuk sebuah proses bisnis dan sistem informasinya.
      • Policy – kumpulan aturan yang mengendalikan proses bisnis.
      • Procedure – kumpulan instruksi step-by-step dan logis untuk menyelesaikan proses bisnis.
      • Work flow – aliran transaksi melalui proses bisnis untuk memastikan pemeriksanaan dengan benar dan persetujuan dapat diterapkan.
    Continued ...
  • 17. Views of PROCESS (continued)
    • System designers’ view
      • Berhubungan dengan otomatisasi proses bisnis dan bagaimana mengotomatisasikannya.
      • Dibatasi oleh teknologi aplikasi yang akan digunakan
      • Software specifications – desain teknis proses bisnis untuk diotomatisasi atau disupport oleh program komputer yang nantinya akan dibangun oleh system builders.
    • System builders’ view
      • Berhubungan dengan logika pemrograman sebagai implementasi dari proses bisnis yang diotomatisasi.
      • Program Aplikasi – berbasis bahasa yang dapat dibaca oleh mesin, representasi bagaimana seharusnya software menyelesaikan tugasnya.
      • Prototyping – teknik untuk membangun model sistem informasi fungsional secara cepat menggunakan RAD tool, tapi terkadang tidak lengkap.
  • 18. COMMUNICATION Building Blocks
  • 19. Views of COMMUNICATION
    • System owners’ view
      • Berhubungan dengan scope komunikasi pada sistem informasi.
        • Who : siapa unit, staf, kustomer, atau mitra yang harus berinteraksi dengan sistem ?
        • Where : dimana unit, staf, kustomer, mitra harus ditempatkan ?
        • What : apakah sistem harus mempunyai antar muka dengan sistem informasi ?
    • System users’ view
      • Berhubungan dengan input dan output sistem informasi.
    Continued ...
  • 20. Views of COMMUNICATION (continued)
    • System designers’ view
      • Berhubungan dengan desain teknis antarmuka pengguna-ke-sistem dan antarmuka komunikasi sistem-ke-sistem.
      • Interface specifications – bagaimana pengguna sistem berinteraksi dengan sistem dan bagaimana interaksinya dengan sistem lain ?.
      • User dialogue – bagaimana user berpindah dari window ke window atau halaman ke halaman dalam berinteraksi menggunakan program aplikasi untuk efektifitas pekerjaan.
    • System builders’ view
      • Berhubungan dengan konstruksi, instalasi, pengujian dan implementasi solusi antarmuka pengguna dan antarmuka dari sistem ke sistem menggunakan teknologi antarmuka.
      • Middleware – teknologi antarmuka dari sistem ke sistem, software utility yang memungkinkan software aplikasi dan software sistem saling berantaroperasi secara terintegrasi. Misalnya perangkat ODBC, XML.
  • 21. Network Technologies and the IS Building Blocks