1 C  H  A  P  T  E  R THE CONTEXT  OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS
Introduction : Apakah ini produk sistem informasi ? <ul><li>Sistem Informasi Akademik Online di Universitas Dian Nuswantor...
Chapter 1 – The Context of Systems Analysis & Design Methods <ul><li>Define  information system  and name seven types of i...
Chapter Map
Istilah & Produk Sistem Informasi <ul><ul><li>Information System (IS)  : kumpulan orang, data, proses dan teknologi inform...
Stakeholders : Pemain dalam Sistem <ul><li>Stakeholders  : Seseorang yang terlibat pada sistem informasi (usulan atau yang...
Other Stakeholders External Service Provider (ESP)  : systems analyst, system designer, atau system builder yang menyediak...
Stakeholders’ Perspectives on an Information System
The Systems Analyst as a Problem-Solver <ul><li>Situasi kebenaran atas suatu masalah, baik secara real atau bersifat antis...
Where Do Systems Analysts Work? 1. Pemilik/Manaj. Eksekutif 2. Bagian Pelayanan Informasi 3. Unit-unit Fungsional 4. Proye...
Kemampuan yang dibutuhkan oleh Systems Analyst <ul><li>Memiliki pengetahuan teknologi informasi </li></ul><ul><li>Pengalam...
The Systems Analyst as a Facilitator
Etika Analis Sistem – from Computer Ethics Institute <ul><li>Janganlah engkau menggunakan komputer untuk menyakiti sesamam...
Business Drivers for Today’s Information Systems <ul><li>Globalization of the Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Commerc...
Globalization of the Economy <ul><li>Global Economy brings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New and expanded international markets </...
Electronic Commerce and Business <ul><li>E-Commerce  – the buying and selling of goods and services by using the Internet....
An Electronic Commerce Storefront
An Electronic Commerce Procurement Storefront
Security and Privacy <ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will the business continue in the even of a security breac...
Collaboration and Partnership Organizations seek to break down the walls that separate organizational departments and func...
Knowledge Asset Management <ul><li>Data  – raw facts about people, places, events, and things that are of importance in an...
Continuous Improvement and Total Quality Management Business Processes  – Tasks that respond to business events (e.g., an ...
Business Process Redesign <ul><li>Business process redesign  (BPR) is the study, analysis, and redesign of fundamental bus...
Technology Drivers for Today’s Information Systems <ul><li>Networks and the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>xHTML and XML, ...
Enterprise Applications
Supply Chain
Enterprise Application Integration
ERP vendors :  Baan, J. D. Edwards, Oracle, Peoplesoft, SAP AG SCM vendors : i2 Technologies, Manugistics, - SAP, SCT,  CR...
A Simple System Development Process <ul><li>Proses Pengembangan Sistem  – kumpulan aktivitas, metode, praktek terbaik, ses...
Systems Development and Problem Solving
Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley
System Development Process Overview <ul><li>Permulaan (Inisiasi) Sistem  – perencanaan awal proyek untuk mendefinisikan li...
Sequential versus Iterative Development Sequential process disebut juga “waterfall development” process Back
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  • Chapter 1 - The Context of Systems Analysis And Design Methods This repository of slides is intended to support the named chapter. The slide repository should be used as follows: Copy the file to a unique name for your course and unit. Edit the file by deleting those slides you don’t want to cover, editing other slides as appropriate to your course, and adding slides as desired. Print the slides to produce transparency masters or print directly to film or present the slides using a computer image projector. Each slide includes instructor notes. To view those notes in PowerPoint, click-left on the View Menu; then click left on Notes View sub-menu. You may need to scroll down to see the instructor notes. The instructor notes are also available in hardcopy as the Instructor Guide to Accompany Systems Analysis and Design Methods, 6/ed.
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  • Teaching Notes This is the first “chapter map” for the book. Each chapter will include a chapter map that visually maps the chapter to our adaptation of John Zachman’s Framework for Information Systems Architecture . The complete map will be built over the course of the first three chapters. Chapter 1 emphasizes the stakeholders column. Conversion Notes No changes from the 5 th edition.
  • Conversion Notes This is a more concise definition of “information system” than in previous editions. It better reflects what information systems are and do rather than how they are used. Some books use the term “computer technology.” We prefer the more contemporary term “information technology” as a superset of computer technology.
  • Conversion Notes These three definitions have been placed together to improve the conceptual flow. Teaching Notes Give examples of information workers and knowledge workers to reinforce the difference. Footnote – Information workers (sometimes called “white-collar workers”) have outnumbered blue-collar workers since 1957. Typically a knowledge worker has a degree or credential in some subject area (hence, they are often called “subject area experts”). Examples include engineers, scientists, accountants, lawyers, etc. Briefly describe a typical information system that students would be familiar with, such as an enrollment system for the college. Invite the class to brainstorm who the stakeholders would be and which of them would be information workers or knowledge workers.
  • Teaching Notes This map emphasizes how each kind of stakeholder interacts with the information system. Note that the systems analyst role overlaps the roles of all the other stakeholders. The systems analyst is a facilitator to all the other roles.
  • Teaching Notes It can be useful to present examples of each scenario from the instructor’s personal experiences. The classification scheme is not mutually exclusive; that is, a project can be driven by multiple instances and combinations of problems, opportunities, and directives. a problem might be classified as both a true problem an opportunity, or an opportunity plus directive.
  • Teaching Notes Note that every organization structures itself uniquely Systems Analysts also work for: Outsourcing businesses Consulting businesses Commercial software developers Conversion Notes This is an expanded view compared to the comparable figure in the 5 th edition. This provides a picture of the entire organization and the various place where systems analysts work
  • No additional notes
  • No additional notes
  • No additional notes.
  • No additional notes.
  • Conversion Notes This list is substantially revised from the 5 th edition.
  • Conversion Notes This slide is new to the 6 th edition Teaching Notes The trend is for these core enterprise applications to be purchased. These purchased applications are never sufficient to meet all the information needs of the organization. Thus systems analysts and other developers are asked to develop value-added applications to meet additional needs. This is often called systems integration .
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  • Teaching Notes This is not an actual system development life cycle or methodology but simply general problem-solving steps.
  • Conversion Notes This figure and slide is new to the 6 th edition Teaching Notes The general problem-solving steps map to these stages as: Identity the problem – System initiation Analyze and understand the problem – System analysis Identity solution requirements and expectations – System analysis Identify alternative solutions and choose the best course of action – System design Design the chosen solution – System design Implement the chosen solution – System implementation Evaluate the results – System implementation
  • Teaching Notes This is essentially the traditional System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) without the system support phase. We elected not to use that term because it invokes negative connotation for many instructors. Some associate it with a pure waterfall development approach (which we consider unfair). We differentiate between development and operation (sometimes called production). System support is presented in the 6 th edition as a separate project – a maintenance or enhancement project that should follow the exact same problem-solving approach, though on a more limited scale.
  • Conversion Notes This slide and figure is new to the 6 th edition Teaching Notes Sequential processes are one alternative. This is often called a “waterfall development” process. An iterative or incremental development process develops and placed into operation a portion of the new system as quickly as possible and then moves on to other parts of the system. Consider asking students to come up with pros and cons of each approach. For instance, the iterative approach gives the users some of what they want much sooner than the sequential approach. But the sequential approach is less likely to require fixes and redesigns to what has previously been implemented.
  • Bab 1

    1. 1. 1 C H A P T E R THE CONTEXT OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS
    2. 2. Introduction : Apakah ini produk sistem informasi ? <ul><li>Sistem Informasi Akademik Online di Universitas Dian Nuswantoro </li></ul><ul><li>Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Penilaian Kelayakan Permohonan Kredit di Bank BCA </li></ul><ul><li>Document Information System (DIS) di ETSA Advertising Semarang </li></ul><ul><li>Sistem Pakar Diagnosis Penyakit Jantung </li></ul><ul><li>Website www.jawatengah.go.id </li></ul><ul><li>Mailing List Quality Assurance Ditjen Dikti </li></ul><ul><li>Media Pembelajaran Matematika SMA berbasis Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Land Office and Land Affair (LOLA) Badan pertanahan Nasional </li></ul><ul><li>Pemetaan Kawasan Industri di Kota Semarang </li></ul>
    3. 3. Chapter 1 – The Context of Systems Analysis & Design Methods <ul><li>Define information system and name seven types of information system applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify different types of stakeholders who use or develop information systems, and give examples of each. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the unique role of systems analysts in the development of information systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify those skills needed to successfully function as an information system analyst. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe current business drivers that influence information systems development. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe current technology drivers that influence information systems development. </li></ul><ul><li>Briefly describe a simple process for developing information systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between the waterfall and the iterative/incremental approaches to systems development. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Chapter Map
    5. 5. Istilah & Produk Sistem Informasi <ul><ul><li>Information System (IS) : kumpulan orang, data, proses dan teknologi informasi yang saling berhubungan (berinteraksi) untuk pengumpulan, pengolahan, penyimpanan dan penyediaan informasi sebagai output yang dibutuhkan untuk mendukung organisasi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Technology (IT) : istilah yang populer untuk menjelaskan kombinasi antara teknologi komputer (hardware and software) dengan teknologi komunikasi (data, image, dan voice). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transaction Processing System (TPS) : sistem informasi yang digunakan untuk mengambil dan mengolah data transaksi bisnis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management Information System (MIS) : sistem informasi yang menyediakan berbagai pelaporan berorientasi pada manajemen yang berbasis pada operasi dan proses transaksi pada organisasi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision Support System (DSS) : sistem informasi yang digunakan untuk membantu mengidentifikasi peluang pengambilan keputusan atau menyediakan informasi untuk membantu pengambilan keputusan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Information System (EIS) : sistem informasi yang digunakan untuk perencanaan, penilaian dan pengambilan keputusan bagi manajer eksekutif. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert System (ES) : sistem informasi yang mengambil keahlian pakar dan men-simulasikan keahlian tsb untuk dimanfaatkan oleh yang bukan ahlinya. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications and Collaboration System (CCS) : sistem informasi yang memungkinkan terciptanya komunikasi yang efektif antara staf, mitra, kustomer, dan pemasok sehingga meningkatkan kemampuan dalam bekerjasama. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office Automation System (OAS) : sistem informasi untuk mendukung aktivitas bisnis dalam lingkup perkantoran sehingga meningkatkan aliran kerja diantara staf. </li></ul></ul>Back
    6. 6. Stakeholders : Pemain dalam Sistem <ul><li>Stakeholders : Seseorang yang terlibat pada sistem informasi (usulan atau yang ada). Stakeholder dapat orang teknis atau non teknis. Berasal dari internal atau eksternal organisasi. </li></ul><ul><li>Information workers : Seseorang yang pekerjaannya terkait pada pembuatan, pengumpulan, pengolahan, distribusi atau penggunaan informasi. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge workers : Bagian dari information workers, tetapi spesialis pada knowledge atau pengetahuan tertentu. Misal Akuntan, Pengacara, Insinyur, Desainer Iklan, Analis Pasar dsb. </li></ul><ul><li>System owners : Sponsor dan penasehat eksekutif, yang bertanggungjawab pada pembiayaan pengembangan, operasi dan pemeliharaan sistem informasi. </li></ul><ul><li>System users : “Kustomer” atau pengguna sistem informasi reguler untuk : pengambilan, validasi, entering, responding to, menyimpan, dan menukar data dan informasi. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal users : staf administrasi dan pelayanan, staf teknis dan profesional, supervisor, manajer menengah, dan manajer eksekutif, remote users, mobile users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External users : customer, supplier, mitra, competitor, remote user, mobile user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System designer : Spesialis teknis yang bertugas mendesain/menerjemahkan kebutuhan bisnis user ke dalam solusi teknis. Lingkup desain meliputi desain database, input, output, layar, jaringan, dan software yang dapat memenuhi kebutuhan user. Profesi : database adm, network architect, Web architect, Graphic architect, Security expert, technology specialist dll. </li></ul><ul><li>System builders : Spesialis teknis yang mengkonstruksi sistem informasi beserta komponen-2 nya berbasis pada spesifikasi desain yang sudah ditetapkan oleh system designers. Profesi : App. prog, System prog., database prog., network adm., security adm., webmaster, soft. integrator dll. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems analyst : Spesialis yang bertugas mempelajari masalah dan kebutuhan organisasi untuk menemukan formulasi bagaimana orang-orang/staf, data, proses dan teknologi informasi dapat dikembangkan untuk peningkatan kinerja bisnis. Syarat : Harus memahami bisnis dan komputer . </li></ul><ul><li>Analog : Konsultan sistem, analis bisnis, arsitek sistem, insinyur sistem, insinyur informasi, analis informasi, Integrator sistem. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Other Stakeholders External Service Provider (ESP) : systems analyst, system designer, atau system builder yang menyediakan jasa keahlian dan pengalamannya pada organisasi bisnis lain untuk membantu peningkatan bisnis organisasi, pengembangan atau integrasi sistem informasi. Biasanya para ESP tergabung dalam sebuah organisasi jasa atau konsultan atau free lance. Project Manager : profesional berpengalaman yang bertanggung jawab pada perencanaan (planning), pengawasan (monitoring), dan pengendalian (controlling) proyek. Lingkup pekerjaan meliputi penjadwalan (schedule), penganggaran (budget), deliverables, kepuasan kustomer (customer satisfaction), standar teknis (technical standards), dan kualitas sistem (system quality).
    8. 8. Stakeholders’ Perspectives on an Information System
    9. 9. The Systems Analyst as a Problem-Solver <ul><li>Situasi kebenaran atas suatu masalah, baik secara real atau bersifat antisipasi, yang membutuhkan koreksi </li></ul><ul><li>Peluang untuk memperbaiki situasi walaupun tidak ada komplain/keluhan </li></ul><ul><li>Langsung menangani/memperbaiki situasi terkait dengan komplain/keluhan atau tidak terhadap sistem saat ini </li></ul>
    10. 10. Where Do Systems Analysts Work? 1. Pemilik/Manaj. Eksekutif 2. Bagian Pelayanan Informasi 3. Unit-unit Fungsional 4. Proyek tertentu 5. Dept. Komp. unit fungsional
    11. 11. Kemampuan yang dibutuhkan oleh Systems Analyst <ul><li>Memiliki pengetahuan teknologi informasi </li></ul><ul><li>Pengalaman dan keahlian dalam pemrograman komputer </li></ul><ul><li>Memiliki pengetahuan bisnis secara umum </li></ul><ul><li>Memiliki keahlian problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Memiliki keahlian komunikasi interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Memiliki keahlian berhubungan/berrelasi interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Fleksibel dan memiliki kemampuan beradaptasi </li></ul><ul><li>Memiliki karakter dan ber-etika </li></ul>
    12. 12. The Systems Analyst as a Facilitator
    13. 13. Etika Analis Sistem – from Computer Ethics Institute <ul><li>Janganlah engkau menggunakan komputer untuk menyakiti sesamamu </li></ul><ul><li>Janganlah engkau mencampuri pekerjaan komputer sesamamu </li></ul><ul><li>Janganlah engkau menyusup/i file komputer sesamamu </li></ul><ul><li>Janganlah engkau menggunakan komputer untuk mencuri </li></ul><ul><li>Janganlah engkau menggunakan komputer untuk bersaksi dusta </li></ul><ul><li>Janganlah ada padamu perangkat lunak yang belum engkau bayar atau engkau kopi (tanpa ijin) </li></ul><ul><li>Janganlah engkau menggunakan sumber daya komputer sesamamu tanpa ijin atau kompensasi yang sesuai </li></ul><ul><li>Janganlah engkau membajak hasil karya intelektual sesamamu </li></ul><ul><li>Berpikirlah mengenai konsekuensi sosial atas program yang engkau tulis atau sistem yang engkau desain </li></ul><ul><li>Gunakanlah komputer dalam cara-cara yang memastikan pertimbangan dan penghargaan sesamamu </li></ul>Back
    14. 14. Business Drivers for Today’s Information Systems <ul><li>Globalization of the Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Commerce and Business </li></ul><ul><li>Security and Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration and Partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Asset Management </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous Improvement and Total Quality Management </li></ul><ul><li>Business Process Redesign </li></ul>
    15. 15. Globalization of the Economy <ul><li>Global Economy brings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New and expanded international markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New international competitors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on information systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require support of multiple languages, currency exchange rates, business cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require consolidation of international data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand for players who can communicate, orally and in writing, with management and users that speak different languages </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Electronic Commerce and Business <ul><li>E-Commerce – the buying and selling of goods and services by using the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>E-Business – the use of the Internet to conduct and support day-to-day business activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of e-commerce and e-business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing of corporate image, products, and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business-to-consumer (B2C) ; www.amazon.com, www.bhineka.com, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business-to-business (B2B) ; www.e-bay.com, www.tanah-abang.com, www.indonetwork.com, www.kadin-indonesia.or.id etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on information systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most new information systems are being designed for an Internet (or intranet) architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since the only client-side software is a web browser, the choice of client operating system is becoming less important </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. An Electronic Commerce Storefront
    18. 18. An Electronic Commerce Procurement Storefront
    19. 19. Security and Privacy <ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will the business continue in the even of a security breach, terrorist attack, or disaster? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can the business protect its digital assets from outside threats? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer demands for privacy in e-commerce transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on information systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to incorporate stringent security and privacy controls </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Collaboration and Partnership Organizations seek to break down the walls that separate organizational departments and functions. Organizations collaborate with outside business partners and even competitors.
    21. 21. Knowledge Asset Management <ul><li>Data – raw facts about people, places, events, and things that are of importance in an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Information – data that has been processed or reorganized into a more meaningful form for someone. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge – data and information that is further refined based on the facts, truths, beliefs, judgments, experiences, and expertise of the recipient. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Asset Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes that data, information, and knowledge are critical business resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asks: “How can the organization manage and share knowledge for competitive advantage?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strives to integrate the data and information that can create and preserve knowledge </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Continuous Improvement and Total Quality Management Business Processes – Tasks that respond to business events (e.g., an order). Business processes are the work, procedures, and rules required to complete the business tasks, independent of any information technology used to automate or support them. Continuous process improvement (CPI) – The continuous monitoring of business processes to effect small but measurable improvements in cost reduction and value added. Total quality management (TQM) – a comprehensive approach to facilitating quality improvements and management within a business.
    23. 23. Business Process Redesign <ul><li>Business process redesign (BPR) is the study, analysis, and redesign of fundamental business processes to reduce costs and/or improve value added to the business. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More substantial changes and improvements than CPI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually complemented by CPI </li></ul></ul>Back
    24. 24. Technology Drivers for Today’s Information Systems <ul><li>Networks and the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>xHTML and XML, Bahasa script, Bahasa pemrograman Web, Intranet, Ekstranet, Portal, Layanan web dll </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile and Wireless Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PDAs, Smart phones, Bluetooth, Wireless networking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Object Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects are reusable, Objects are extensible, Object-oriented programming languages include C++, java, Smalltalk, and VB.net </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail, Instant messaging, Groupware, Work flow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), SCM (Supply Chain Management), CRM (Customer Relationship Management, EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Enterprise Applications
    26. 26. Supply Chain
    27. 27. Enterprise Application Integration
    28. 28. ERP vendors : Baan, J. D. Edwards, Oracle, Peoplesoft, SAP AG SCM vendors : i2 Technologies, Manugistics, - SAP, SCT, CRM vendors : BroadVision, E.piphany, Kana, Nortel/Clarity, Peoplesoft/Vanitive, Siebel EAI vendors : BEA Systems, IBM (MQSeries), Mercator Software, TIBCO Software ERP & Vendor Enterprise Resource Planning Aplikasi perangkat lunak yang mengintegrasikan secara penuh sistem informasi yang mencakup sebagian besar atau semua fungsi bisnis inti More information about ERP software : http://evaluation.altech.informatics.co.za/researchit/ERP_SAP_home.asp Enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) are management information systems (MISs) that integrate and automate many of the business practices associated with the operations or production and distribution aspects of a company engaged in manufacturing products or services. Enterprise resource planning is a term derived from manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) that followed material requirements planning (MRP). ERP systems typically handle the manufacturing, logistics, distribution, inventory, shipping, invoicing, and accounting for a company. Enterprise Resource Planning or ERP software can aid in the control of many business activities, like sales, delivery, billing, production, inventory management, quality management, and human resources management. ERPs are often called back office systems indicating that customers and the general public are not directly involved. This is contrasted with front office systems like customer relationship management (CRM) systems that deal directly with the customers, or the eBusiness systems such as eCommerce, eGoverment, eTelecom, and eFinance, or supplier relationship management (SRM) systems that deal with the suppliers. ERPs are cross-functional and enterprise wide. All functional departments that are involved in operations or production are integrated in one system. In addition to manufacturing, warehousing, logistics, and Information Technology, this would include accounting, human resources, marketing, and strategic management. Back
    29. 29. A Simple System Development Process <ul><li>Proses Pengembangan Sistem – kumpulan aktivitas, metode, praktek terbaik, sesuai permintaan, dan peralatan terautomatisasi yang digunakan stakeholders untuk mengembangkan dan memelihara sistem informasi/perangkat lunak. </li></ul><ul><li>Pendekatan problem-solving : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mengidentifikasi masalah. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menganalisis dan memahami masalah.  Analisis Kinerja Sistem (System Performance Analysis ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mengidentifikasi persyaratan atau harapan solusi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mengidentifikasi solusi alternatif dan memilih solusi/tindakan terbaik. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merancang solusi yang dipilih. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mengimplementasikan solusi yang terpilih. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mengevaluasi hasil. Jika masalah tidak terselesaikan, kembali ke langkah 1 atau 2 seperlunya). </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Systems Development and Problem Solving
    31. 31. Prepared by Kevin C. Dittman for Systems Analysis & Design Methods 4ed by J. L. Whitten & L. D. Bentley
    32. 32. System Development Process Overview <ul><li>Permulaan (Inisiasi) Sistem – perencanaan awal proyek untuk mendefinisikan lingkup, tujuan, jadwal, dan anggaran. </li></ul><ul><li>Analisis Sistem – studi domain masalah bisnis untuk merekomendasikan perbaikan dan menspesifikasi persyaratan dan prioritas bisnis dalam rangka menyelesaikan masalah. </li></ul><ul><li>Desain Sistem – spesifikasi atau konstruksi teknis, solusi berbasis komputer untuk persyaratan bisnis yang telah diidentifikasi dalam analisis sistem. </li></ul><ul><li>Implementasi Sistem – konstruksi, instalasi, pengujian dan pengiriman sistem untuk digunakan dalam proses bisnis. </li></ul><ul><li>Manajemen Proyek dan Manajemen Proses </li></ul><ul><li>Manajemen Proyek – suatu aktivitas untuk mendefinisikan, merencanakan, melaksanakan, mengawasi, dan mengendalikan proyek pengembangan sistem dalam waktu dan anggaran yang terbatas. </li></ul><ul><li>Manajemen Proses – aktivitas berkelanjutan yang mendefinisikan, meningkatkan, dan mengkoordinasi penggunaan metodologi dan standar pada semua proyek pengembangan sistem. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Sequential versus Iterative Development Sequential process disebut juga “waterfall development” process Back
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